UDP and TCP use 1s complement for their checksums. Suppose you have the following three 8-bit bytes: 01010011, 01010100, 01110100. What is the 1s complement of the sum of these 8-bit bytes? (Note that although UDP and TCP use 16-bit words in computing the checksum, for this problem you are being asked to consider 8-bit sums.) Show all work. Why is it that UDP takes the 1s complement of the sum; that is, why not just use the sum? With the 1s complement scheme, how does the receiver detect errors? Is it possible that a 1-bit error will go undetected? How about a 2-bit error?
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This solution includes a set of questions based on the transport layer of the OSI model.
Network Security: Seven Layers of Open Systems Interconnection
Explain the seven layers of the OSI model in detail.
At which layers do packet-filtering routers and firewalls reside?
How do packet-filtering routers and firewalls protect a network?
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