Explore BrainMass

Explore BrainMass

    Group Characteristics in the Periodic Table

    Not what you're looking for? Search our solutions OR ask your own Custom question.

    This content was COPIED from BrainMass.com - View the original, and get the already-completed solution here!

    Research Question:
    You are a group of young tutors teaching a group of 12 graders preparing for university entrance; your goal is to teach them periodic table group characteristics with emphasis on specific elements of each group.

    You will include in your body of the report:
    Hydrogen, Alkali metals, earth alkali metals, rare earth elements, group 4a elements, group 5a elemetns, group 6a elements, halogens and transition metals.

    © BrainMass Inc. brainmass.com December 24, 2021, 11:48 pm ad1c9bdddf
    https://brainmass.com/chemistry/periodicity/group-characteristics-periodic-table-603411

    SOLUTION This solution is FREE courtesy of BrainMass!

    See the attachment.

    Periodic table group properties
    Research Question:
    You are a group of young tutors teaching a group of 12 graders preparing for university entrance; your goal is to teach them periodic table group characteristics with emphasis on specific elements of each group.
    You will include in your body of the report:
    Hydrogen, Alkali metals, earth alkali metals, rare earth elements, group 4a elements, group 5a elements, group 6a elements, halogens and transition metals.
    Essay must be minimum 2000 words in all written in Verdana 10, double spaced, margins 2.5 cm on all sides, number the pages consecutively, beginning on the first page of the text and continuing through to your works cited page.
    The following parts must be present in your paper.
    1-Title page
    2-Table of contents
    3-Body
    4-References (work must be cited)

    ********************

    Title: Group Characteristics in Periodic Table

    Table of Contents:
    1. Hydrogen
    2. Alkali Metals and Earth Alkali Metals
    3. 3A Group Elements
    4. 4A Group Elements
    5. 5A Group Elements
    6. 6A Group Elements
    7. Halogens
    8. Transition Metals

    Body:
    1. Hydrogen
    Hydrogen is the lightest element and the most abundant element in the universe. It has three isotopes: Protium, H; Deuterium, D; and Tritium, T. Deuterium and Tritium are used as isotopic labels in spectroscopy. Usually hydrogen is prepared by electrical or chemical reduction of a compound where hydrogen is in +1 oxidation state. For example, alkali metals react with water at ordinary temperature yielding hydrogen [1]:
    2 Li + 2 H2O = H2 + 2 LiOH
    Industrially hydrogen is produced by the steam reforming of natural gas and by the electrolysis of water. Hydrogen is a colorless odorless gas, which reacts with most of the elements. It is a better conductor of heat than other gases. Hydrogen does not support respiration, but it is not poisonous either.

    2. Alkali Metals and Earth Alkali Metals
    The alkali metals in Group 1 of the periodic table consists lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, and francium (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Fr, respectively). Group one elements share some common characteristics. They are all soft, silvery metals. Due to their low ionization energy, these metals have low melting points and are highly reactive. The reactivity increases down the table. Alkali metals are known to react vigorously with water. Due to this, they are often stored in mineral oil and are not found in their elemental forms in nature. These characteristics can be explained by examining the electronic structure of each element in this group. Alkali metals have one valence electron. They readily give up this electron to attain the noble gas configuration as a cation. This makes the elements in this group highly reactive.

    Alkaline earth metals in group 2 consist beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), and radium (Ra). They are also soft and silvery, but they are less metallic in character than group 1 elements [2]. Group 2 elements have two electrons in their valence shell, which they easily give up to form ionic bonds in +2 oxidation state. Some common trends in periodic table are an increase down the group in atomic number, mass, and atomic radius, and a decrease down the group in ionization energy, which applies to group 2 elements as well. Barium sulfate (BaSO4) is used as a contrast agent in x-ray imaging of digestive system [2]. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) can be found in shells of living organisms, used as a commercial antacid and is the main component of limestone.

    3. 3A Group Elements
    Group 3A elements consist boron (B), aluminium (Al), gallium (Ga), indium (In) and
    thallium (Tl). They have three electrons in their outermost shell with an electronic configuration of ns2np1. Boron tends to forms hydrides, the simplest of which is diborane, B2H6. There are over 200 minerals which contain boron, but only few such as colemanite and borax are commercially important [3]. Nowadays 75% of all borax production occurs in either the U.S. or Turkey. Boron is used to make glass, ceramics, and enamels, including fiberglass for insulation. Aluminum alloys are used as structural parts of buildings, as decorative trim, in chemical equipment, and as heat reflectors.

    4. 4A Group Elements
    Diamond and graphite are two allotropes of carbon means they are both pure forms of carbon but differ in their structure. Graphene, carbon nanoribbons, carbon nanotubes and fullerene (buckyball) are allotropes of carbon which are widely used in nanotechnology research due to their remarkable electrical and mechanical properties. Carbonic acid is a weak acid made by combination of carbon dioxide and water. It can be found in fizzy drinks, acid rain and even in blood. It plays an important role in keeping body pH stable. Silicones, also known as inorganic rubbers, are made up of several siloxane repeat units (-Si-O-Si-). These polymeric strictures are capable of cross-linking further. Silicones exhibit various useful characteristics like low thermal conductivity, low toxicity, hydrophobicity, electrical insulation, and so on and finds use as sealants, adhesives, lubricants, medicine, cooking utensils etc. Silicon or Si dominates the semiconductor industry.

    5. 5A Group Elements
    Nitrogen fixing bacteria have the capability of capturing nitrogen from air and pass it over to legume plants. There are various methods by which nitrogen can be prepared in lab. For example, a hot aqueous solution of ammonium nitrite decomposes spontaneously to give elemental nitrogen and water. The heating of barium or sodium azide (NaN3 or Ba[N3]2) also yields free nitrogen. In another approach, passing ammonia gas over a hot metallic oxide will result in the formation of free nitrogen, free metal, and water. Nitrogen can exist in a wide range of oxidation states, for example, -3 in amine to + 5 in nitric acid and anything in between like -2 in hydrazine, -1 in azo compound, =1 in nitroso compound, and +3 in nitro compound [4].

    6. 6A Group Elements
    Oxygen is produced by plants during photosynthesis. In industry, oxygen is formed by fractional distillation of liquid air, which finds use in air compressor and chilling units. Ozone (O3) has a bend structure with sp2 hybridized central atom having lone pair of electron on it. It can be shown as a resonance hybrid with single bond on one side and double bond on the other side. Ozone in stratosphere is mostly produced by short wave UV light. However free radicals can cause depletion of ozone layer. Sulfur is used to produce sulfuric acid for batteries and it is used in fireworks, paper, and some medicines.

    7. Halogens
    Halogens are highly reactive and can form halides (e.g. HF, HCl etc), interhalogens (e.g. BrF3, ClF etc) and poly-halogenated compounds (e.g. PCB). Metal halides are used in discharge lamps, and alkyl halides are used as refrigerants, propellants for aerosols, for generating foamed plastics. Interhalogens are good halogenating agents. Polyhalogenated compounds are used in cookware, wood treatment, waterproofing etc.

    8. Transition Metals
    The Transition Metals are the elements found between the Group 2A Elements and the Group 2B Elements in the periodic table. Transition elements can contain more than 8 electrons in their outermost shell by progressive filling of d-orbitals and can use two outermost shells for bonding. Most transition metals can form more than one oxidation state and they are capable of forming coordination complexes. Iron complexes are present in hemoglobin in blood, which are responsible for oxygen carriage.

    References:
    [1] http://www.ucc.ie/academic/chem/dolchem/html/elem001.html
    [2] http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Inorganic_Chemistry/Descriptive_Chemistry/s-Block_Elements/Group__2_Elements%3A_The_Alkaline_Earth_Metals
    [3] https://www.mineralseducationcoalition.org/minerals/boron
    [4] http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Organic_Chemistry/Amines/Properties_of_Amines/Oxidation_States_of_Nitrogen.

    This content was COPIED from BrainMass.com - View the original, and get the already-completed solution here!

    © BrainMass Inc. brainmass.com December 24, 2021, 11:48 pm ad1c9bdddf>
    https://brainmass.com/chemistry/periodicity/group-characteristics-periodic-table-603411

    Attachments

    ADVERTISEMENT