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ELECTRON CONFIGURATIONS and PERIODIC TRENDS

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1. Briefly explain what is wrong with the following orbital diagrams.

2. Briefly explain what is wrong with the following electron configurations.

3. (Periodic Trends: Atomic Radius)

a. As you go down a column in the periodic table, atomic size increases. Explain why in terms of principle quantum number and effective nuclear charge.

b. As you go left-to-right across a row in the periodic table, atomic size decreases. Explain why in terms of principle quantum number and effective nuclear charge.

4. (Periodic Trends: Ionization Energy)

a. As you go down a column in the periodic table, ionization energy decreases. Explain why in terms of principle quantum number and atomic radius.

b. As you go left-to-right across a row in the periodic table, ionization energy increases. Explain why in terms of effective nuclear charge and atomic radius.

5. (Periodic Trends: Electron Affinity)

a. As you go down a column in the periodic table, electron affinity becomes less negative. Explain why in terms of principle quantum number and atomic radius.

b. As you go left-to-right across a row in the periodic table, electron affinity becomes more negative. Explain why in terms of effective nuclear charge and atomic radius.

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ELECTRON CONFIGURATIONS, PERIODIC TRENDS, ELECTRON AFFINITY, ATOMIC RADIUS, IONIZATION ENERGY.

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1. Briefly explain what is wrong with the following orbital diagrams.

a.         
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p

No two electrons can have the same spin quantum number (ms) in the same orbital. Therefore, if you look at the highlighted electrons, you will notice that they both have the same spin. One of the arrows must be pointed downward to indicate opposite spin from the other.

b.         _
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p

According to Hund's Rule every orbital in a set of equivalent-energy orbitals must be half-filled before any of them become filled. Therefore, the three 3p orbitals must each have one electron in them before the first one shown has a pair of electrons in it. The highlighted electron needs to go into the empty 3p orbital.

c.         
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p

The maximum number of electrons that can occupy a single orbital is two. The highlighted electron ...

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Periodic Table Trends

Electron affinity (E.A.) generally becomes more negative across a period, from left to right. However, the E.A. of phosphorus does not follow this trend and is less negative than that of silicon. Using orbital diagrams showing the valence electronic configuration of Si and P, explain why this exception occurs. Clearly justify your answer.

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