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    fresh vs. saltwater

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    The question arises concerning the density of saltwater: is it because water molecules have moved out of the system, replaced by sodium and chlorine ions, which are heavier, or have the ions moved into the interstices, creating a greater number of particles in the solution?
    By the gas laws, a cubic meter of gas always maintains a constant number of particles (at equal temp and pressure). Thus, damp air has the same number of particles as dry air, only some particles are lighter (the water). But does this apply to liquids?
    The molarity and molality measures, without being rigorous, show that there is a difference in a solution of exactly 1 liter and a solution of 1 liter water plus some solute. So the inference is that solute takes us space; therefore, the added solute does not completely find hiding places among the water molecules. So the question is half answered: solute does not completely nestle among solvent, but must necessarily replace, or bump out, water from a solution. But does "any" of the salt find hiding places among the water, or is it a one-for-one replacement of water for, what? an ion of solute?

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    This behavior is caused by the fact that sea water has a higher density (which is because it carries more solutes) than freshwater. We can also look at the forces between the salt and water in saltwater. We call these intermolecular forces and they result from the attraction of the positive and negative parts of a water molecule to the
    positive and negative ...

    Solution Summary

    Detailed explained solution of why saltwater is heavier than fresh water.