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# Hybrid orbitals, molecular structure, and making solutions

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1) What hybrid orbital would be expected for the central atom in each of the following: ? Draw the molecular structure of these compounds and label Ï? and Ï?bonds.
A: SrCl2
B: NO2
C: COF2
D: GeCl4
E: PBr3
2) Draw the possible isomers of SO3 ).
4) Prepare 25 gm of 2.5% w/w NaCl solution
5) Prepare 50 ml of 13% alcohol solution from 200 ml of 20% alcohol solution
6) Prepare 0.5 molar solution of C6H12O6from 5 molar solution

https://brainmass.com/chemistry/general-chemistry/429600

#### Solution Preview

A) Only covalent bonds have hybridized orbitals, so no hybridization for SrCl2
B) NO2 has a double bond with one of the oxygens, so sp2 hybridized
C) COF2 ...

#### Solution Summary

In this solution we consider two separate concepts. First, we determine the orbital hybridization of 5 different covalent compounds and predict their molecular structure. Then we work on three different problems dealing with the makeup of solutions. First we demonstrate the concept of a % w/w solution and solve, and then there are two dilution problems we consider with the help of a specific formula. Don't miss this one if you are having trouble with any of these concepts!

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## Bonding, Lewis Structures and Molecular Geometry

Consider the following elements and arrange them in order of increasing number of electrons depicted in electron dot symbols. Which one occupies the intermediate position in the series? P, Se, Si, I and B

A. P
B. B
C. Si
D. I

Consider the following elements and select the one which has the smallest number of electrons shown in an electron dot symbol. Al, Se, Si, Sb and Br

A. Al
B. Br
C. Si
D. Sb

Consider the following species. Which contain an odd number of electrons? BrO3, HO2-, N2O, SO3 and SO32-

A. 2 and 5
B. only 2
C. 3 and 4
D. only 1

Consider the following species. Which contain an odd number of electrons? O, O2-, O22-, O2- and O3

A. only 3
B. only 2
C. 2 and 3
D. only 4

Consider the following species. Which contain an odd number of electrons? NO2, CO, O3-, O22- and SO2

A. 2 and 4
B. 2 and 5
C. 2, 4 and 5
D. 1 and 3

The ion, CS32- consists of a central carbon atom bonded to the three other atoms. Write a resonance form conforming to the Lewis octet rule and determine the number of double bonds in this species.

A. zero
B. three
C. two
D. one

Write resonance structures for SO2 and SO3. Based on these structures one can conclude that

A. both have the same bond length
B. SO2 has longer bonds than SO3
C. SO2 has shorter bonds than SO3
D. bond lengths are variable in both compounds

What types of hybrid orbitals are involved in bonding of BH4-?

A. sp
B. sp2
C. sp3
D. dsp3

What types of hybrid orbitals are involved in bonding of BCl3?

A. sp
B. sp2
C. sp3
D. dsp3

Which of the species in the following list is tetrahedral?

BF4-

SF4

XeF4

SiF4

A. 1 and 3
B. 1 and 4
C. 1 only
D. 2 and 3

Which of the species in the following list is square planar?

BF4-

SF4

XeF4

SiF4

A. 2 and 3
B. 3 only
C. 1 only
D. 1 and 4

Which of the following molecules is nonlinear?

A. HCN
B. C2H2
C. SO2
D. CO2

The largest of the following species is:

A. As3-
B. Se2-
C. S2-
D. Br-

Draw the Lewis formula for IF2+. How many lone pair(s) of electrons are there in the valence shell of the central atom?

A. 0
B. 1
C. 2
D. 3

Draw the Lewis formula for NF4+. How many lone pair(s) of electrons are there in the valence shell of the central atom?

A. 0
B. 1
C. 2
D. 3

The bond angles in IF4- are:

A. slightly less than 109.5º
B. slightly less than 90º
C. exactly 109.5º
D. exactly 90º

The bond angles in IF2+ are:

A. exactly 109.5º
B. exactly 120º
C. slightly less than 90º
D. slightly less than 109.5º

Calculate the Ho for the following reaction using the given bond energies. (H-Cl = 431 kJ; O-O = 494 kJ; H-O = 463, Cl-Cl = 243).

4 HCl(g) + O2(g) &#8594; 2 H2O(g) + 2 Cl2(g)

A. -102
B. -120
C. -139
D. -152

Use the following bond energies to calculate Ho for the given reaction. (H - C = 414; C - C = 347; C = C = 619; H - O = 464; C - O = 351).

CH3CH3(g) + H2O(g) &#8594; CH3CH2OH(g)

A. -22
B. -33
C. -45
D. -56

Calculate the Ho for the following reaction using the given bond energies. (C - H = 414 kJ; F - F = 155 kJ; H - F = 431, C - F = 485).

CH4(g) + 4 F2(g) &#8594; CF4(g) + 4 HF(g)

A. -1388
B. -1422
C. -1542
D. -1598

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