1. Define entropy and relate to probability of microstate formation.

2. Relate entropy and reaction spontaneity, Gibbs free energy and reaction spontaneity, and Gibbs free energy and the equilibrium constant of a reaction.

3. Calculate the entropy change within a system and determine absolute entropies.

4. In your own words, define entropy. Provide one everday example resulting in an increase in entropy, and another resulting in a decrease.

Solution Preview

1. The entropy of any system, S, is defined as:

S = k*ln(Pmax)

where Pmax is the number of microstates corresponding to the most probable distribution of the system and k is the Boltzmann constant (1.3803 × 10-16 ergs per degree C)

2. The Second Law of Thermodynamics: The entropy of the universe increases for any spontaneous reaction. Applied to a chemical system this means that the entropy of a system can increase or decrease but if it does decrease, then the ...

Solution Summary

This solution provides calculations for various calculations for questions regarding entropy.

Entropy,FreeEnergy, and Equilibrium:
Under what conditions does a substance have a standard entropy of zero? Can a substance ever have a negative standard entropy?
( I need help with answering the following question)

I want the thermodynamic quantities of S2O8(-2). In other words, I want the standard free energy of formation, standard heat of formation, and the standard entropy of the S2O8(-2) ion under aqueous conditions.

Question #1
In your own words, define entropy. Provide one everyday example resulting in an increase in entropy, and another resulting in a decrease.
Question #2
About 38% of the food energy we consume is converted to chemical energy in the form of ATP, what happens to the remainder of the energy?
Question #3
When w

Please help answer the following questions. See the attached file for multiple choice options.
1. Which sample of sulfur at 25°C has the greatest entropy?
2. What is the standard free energy change for the following reaction at 25°C: C(diamond) ---> C(graphite)
3. Which sample of H2O has the least entropy?
4. Which su

In a gas phase reaction, what is the effect of increasing reactant or product pressure on the standard Gibbs free energy?
a. it increases due to decreased entropy
b. it decreases due to decreased entropy
c. it increases due to increased enthalpy
d. it may either increase or decrease
e. it is unchanged

During the quasistatic isothermal expansion of a monoatomic ideal gas, how is the change in entropy related to the heat input Q by the simple formula: ΔS = Q/T?
Why isn't this valid for the free expansion process?

(a) As an egg develops into a chicken, its contents become more ordered. Does this violate the law of increasing entropy? Why?
(b) In the operation of a refrigerator, does thermal energy flow from hot to cold, or is it from cold to hot? Why?

For the reaction:
H2 + C2H4 -> C2H6
In gaseous phase, the pre-exponential factor is 1.24*10^6 [M-1s-1] and the activation energy is 180 kJ/mol. find the entropy, the enthalpy and the gibbs free energy.
see attachment

1- If ΔH = -60.0kJ and ΔS = -0.200kJ/K , the reaction is spontaneous below a certain temperature. Calculate that temperature. Express your answer numerically in kelvins.
2-The chemical reaction that causes aluminum to corrode in air is given by
4Al+3O 2 →2Al 2 O 3 in which ΔH rxn ∘ = −3352 kJ and ΔS rxn ∘