1. Define entropy and relate to probability of microstate formation.

2. Relate entropy and reaction spontaneity, Gibbs free energy and reaction spontaneity, and Gibbs free energy and the equilibrium constant of a reaction.

3. Calculate the entropy change within a system and determine absolute entropies.

4. In your own words, define entropy. Provide one everday example resulting in an increase in entropy, and another resulting in a decrease.

Solution Preview

1. The entropy of any system, S, is defined as:

S = k*ln(Pmax)

where Pmax is the number of microstates corresponding to the most probable distribution of the system and k is the Boltzmann constant (1.3803 × 10-16 ergs per degree C)

2. The Second Law of Thermodynamics: The entropy of the universe increases for any spontaneous reaction. Applied to a chemical system this means that the entropy of a system can increase or decrease but if it does decrease, then the ...

Solution Summary

This solution provides calculations for various calculations for questions regarding entropy.

Please help answer the following questions. See the attached file for multiple choice options.
1. Which sample of sulfur at 25°C has the greatest entropy?
2. What is the standard free energy change for the following reaction at 25°C: C(diamond) ---> C(graphite)
3. Which sample of H2O has the least entropy?
4. Which su

(a) As an egg develops into a chicken, its contents become more ordered. Does this violate the law of increasing entropy? Why?
(b) In the operation of a refrigerator, does thermal energy flow from hot to cold, or is it from cold to hot? Why?

1- If ΔH = -60.0kJ and ΔS = -0.200kJ/K , the reaction is spontaneous below a certain temperature. Calculate that temperature. Express your answer numerically in kelvins.
2-The chemical reaction that causes aluminum to corrode in air is given by
4Al+3O 2 →2Al 2 O 3 in which ΔH rxn ∘ = −3352 kJ and ΔS rxn ∘

What is Gibbs free energy? What is the difference between entropy and enthalpy? What does the useful work derived do such that the entropy increases (additional to that increased along with enthalpy) but enthalpy remains the same (i.e the useful work does not increase the enthalpy)?

Consider acetic acid, CH3COOH, The active ingredient in vinegar. It is also responsible for the sour taste of wine when gets exposed to air. Bacterial oxidation turns alcohol to acid.
C2H5OH (aq) +O2 → CH3COOH (aq) +H2O
The following data may be useful:
C2H5OH (aq): ∆H˚f = -288.3 kJ/mol

5. C(s) + CO2(g) ---> 2 CO(g)
Carbon (graphite), carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide form an equilibrium mixture as represented by the equation above.
(a) Predict the sign for the change in entropy, deltaS, for the reaction. Justify your prediction.
(b) In the table below are data that show the percent of CO in the equi

Consider a system consisting of two objects A and B, when A and B have initial temperature T_A and T_B, and heat capacities C_VA and C_VB independent of temperature. This system is put to work so that it can provide work W, until both reaches a final temperature T_F, where T_A>T_F>T_B.
(a) Find the maximum mechanical work tha

How can ds = dqr/T (d-bar q(reversible) / T) can be used to determine the entropy increase of a system in an irreversible process. Why does this technique works?

1. Firstly, how do you calculate the molar solubility of AgBr when given 0.1 M AgBr at 25 degrees C (Ksp = 5 x 10^-3)?
If show me a few examples of how to calculate molar solubility when you're given different things, I would appreciate it.
2. Next, how can I calculate the squilibrium direction of CO2 at 25 degrees C and 9