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Non-tariff barriers for Turkey, South Korea & South Africa

Problem: What are the Non-tariff barriers for the countries listed below: documentation, product standards, imports restrictions etc.

Need to know how to find current information. I have 20 countries to look up. But please find the information for these three so I can see how you word the answer and where you find this information
The information must be current and from valid-credible websites. Please add the web-links where you find this information for each of these. Thanks!

Country 1 - TURKEY

Country 2 - South Korea

Country 3 - South Africa

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Non-tariff barriers to trade are restrictions to imports but are not in the usual form of a tariff.

While import licenses generally are not required [1] for industrial products, products which need after-sales service (e.g., photocopiers, advanced data processing equipment, diesel generators) require licenses. In addition, non-tariff barriers result in costly delays, demurrage charges, and other uncertainties that stifle trade for many agricultural products. Private traders report that Turkish import policies are often implemented in a nontransparent manner.
Moreover, gaps in communication between Ankara and regional offices often result in improper implementation of regulations. Turkey is in the process of rewriting its import regulations for agriculture products in order to comply with EU regulations. However, some new regulations have not been fully conformed to EU requirements. For many products, no written standards exist. For example, despite repeated requests, Turkey failed to provide guidelines for red meat imports. For the past four years, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs (MARA), through its quarantine service, issued no import licenses for rice prior to the domestic harvest. In July 2003, Turkey stopped issuing licenses and has not yet lifted this ban.

The import process for alcoholic beverages is exceedingly complicated, requiring both MARA control certificates and TEKEL (a parastatal company) permits. The operations of TEKEL have been privatized and recent legislation provides private companies with more control over alcoholic beverage import and distribution. Despite these changes, non-tariff barriers, arduous document requirements, and high duties continue to limit trade in alcoholic beverages. Recent changes in Turkish law call for continued liberalization of the spirits and tobacco market over a five-year period, which should improve the competitive environment.

Industry has raised concerns that Turkey applies discriminatory price controls for imported pharmaceuticals. Under a regulation passed in February 2004, the Turkish government allows higher prices for domestically produced generic drugs.

South Korea imposes non-tariff barriers to protect its industries. For instance, issues related to the inability of US car manufacturers to gain adequate access to the South Korea market have derailed the talks between the two countries.

Imports of new food products into South Korea reportedly take considerably longer to clear from the ports than similar products in other Asian countries.

Despite improvements and changes in attitude, FDI in Korea is still, to a certain extent, hampered by underdeveloped corporate governance, insufficient regulatory transparency, lingering economic domination by the country's remaining conglomerates "chaebol," an inflexible labour system, and a need for better protection of intellectual property rights

Import restrictions, weak enforcement of intellectual property rights (inadequate copyright protection for software, films, and music), service market barriers (barriers in telecommunications and other key service sectors), sanitary and phytosanitary rules, non-transparent and inefficient bureaucracy, excessive regulation, and corruption are non-tariff barriers in South Africa.

African regulations [2] that require a minimum alcohol content by volume (a.b.v.) for whisky, rum, and other products limit the marketing of U.S.-origin spirits that meet the international standard of 40 percent a.b.v. The South African government requires prospective importers to apply for an import permit for certain controlled products. The import of irradiated meat from any source is still banned by public health officials. U.S. horticultural producers have complained about various South African phytosanitary barriers on the importation of apples, cherries, and pears from the United States. They estimate that, if these barriers were removed, U.S. exports of each of these fruits could increase by $5 million to $25 million in annual sales to South Africa. U.S. producers have also expressed concern about unnecessary SPS requirements for some grains, pork, poultry, and horticultural products.

* Telecommunications
South Africa has made a series of WTO commitments on value-added telecommunications and basic telecommunications services and has adopted the WTO reference paper on pro-competitive regulatory principles. The South African government also ...

Solution Summary

The Non-tariff barriers for Turkey, South Korea & South Africa are explained.