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Time Value of Money Questions

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I have attached a format to use for the following questions. I need help, because for some of these I have been searching online for a calculator that can help me an I need help with these and others.

The week 2 word document are the questions and the excel document is the template the have to go in.

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1.Present Values. Compute the present value of a $100 cash flow for the following combinations of discount rates and times:

a. r = 8 percent. t = 10 years.
b. r = 8 percent. t = 20 years.
c. r = 4 percent. t = 10 years.
d. r = 4 percent. t = 20 years.

2. Future Values. Compute the future value of a $100 cash flow for the same combinations of rates and times as in problem 1.

6. Calculating Interest Rate. Find the interest rate implied by the following combinations of present and future values:

Present Value Years Future Value
$400 11 $684
$183 4 $249
$300 7 $300

10. Number of Periods. How long will it take for $400 to grow to $1,000 at the interest rate specified?
a. 4 percent
b. 8 percent
c. 16 percent

20. Present Values. A famous quarterback just signed a $15 million contract providing $3 million a year for 5 years. A less famous receiver signed a $14 million 5-year contract providing $4 million now and $2 million a year for 5 years. Who is better paid? The interest rate is 10 percent.

22. Annuity Values.
a. What is the present value of a 3-year annuity of $100 if the discount rate is 6 percent?
b. What is the present value of the annuity in (a) if you have to wait 2 years instead of 1 year for the payment stream to start?

37. Amortizing Loan. Consider a 4-year amortizing loan. You borrow $1,000 initially, and repay it in four equal annual year-end payments.

a. If the interest rate is 8 percent, show that the annual payment is $301.92.
b. Fill in the following table, which shows how much of each payment is interest versus
principal repayment (that is, amortization), and the outstanding balance on the loan at each
date.

Loan Year-End Interest Year-End Amortization
Time Balance Due on Balance Payment of Loan
0 $1,000 $80 $301.92 $221.92
1 --- --- 301.92 ---
2 --- --- 301.92 ---
3 --- --- 301.92 ---
4 0 0 - -

c. Show that the loan balance after 1 year is equal to the year-end payment of $301.92 times the 3-year annuity factor.

39. Annuity Value. The $40 million lottery payment that you just won actually pays $2 million per year for 20 years. If the discount rate is 8 percent, and the first payment comes in 1 year, what is the present value of the winnings? What if the first payment comes immediately?

59. Retirement Savings. You believe you will need to have saved $500,000 by the time you retire in 40 years in order to live comfortably. If the interest rate is 6 percent per year, how much must you save each year to meet your retirement goal?
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The solution has various time value of money questions relating to future value, present value, loan amortization, annuity and retirement savings

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Financial questions relating to Business Organization, Shareholders' wealth, Cash flow statement, financial ratios, time value of money, CAPM, Bonds, payback, NPV, IRR, IOS and MCC schedule, WACC, Leverage, EBIT-EPS approach, Cash Conversion cycle.

1) Explain the three principal forms of business organization. Outline their respective advantages and disadvantages. How do taxes, risk, scale, and ownership liquidity affect the selection of one of these three methods?

2) Compare the shareholder-wealth-maximization model with the corporate-wealth- maximization model. What is the proxy for shareholder wealth? How does the role of the shareholder conflict with that of other stakeholder? Who are some of the stakeholder and give examples of potential conflicts. Additionally, what is meant by the agency problem, why does it arise, and what may be done to address it?

3) Discuss the three components of a cash flow statement. What is another name for the statement of cash flows and why is the cash flow statement important? How is the statement of cash flows similar or different from a cash budget?

4) Outline the five classes of financial ratios (you do not need to give the formulas). What are the advantages and disadvantage to using ratio analysis? What do you need to be mindful of when doing ratio analysis? What is the DuPont ratio, what are its components, and why is it important?

5) Time value of money

a) What is the difference between compounding and discounting?

b) What are the five variables in a time value calculation?

c) What is the difference between an annuity and a mixed cash flow?

d) What is the difference between an ordinary annuity and an annuity due? Which has a greater future value and why?

e) Give examples where you may use time value in your own life.

6) How do you measure the return and total risk for a single asset? What is the difference between portfolio risk and stand alone risk? What is the difference between systematic risk and unique risk? What is the tradeoff between risk and return? How does risk change (absolutely and incrementally) as you randomly add assets to a portfolio? What effect does
the risk of a single asset and the correlation between assets in a portfolio have on portfolio risk?

7) What is the capital asset pricing model (CAPM); what does it show; why is it important: and how do you use it? What are some of the practical and theoretical limitations of the CAPM?

8) Describe and compare the zero-growth, constant-growth, and multi-stage dividend growth models for equity valuation. What assumptions must you make? How do changes in the growth rate and the cost of capital affect valuation?

11) Bonds

a) Using a bond price yield curve, discuss in detail the relationship between bond prices and the yield to maturity.

b) How do maturity and the size of the coupon affect the shape of the bond price yield curve? Explain. What does the shape of the bond price yield curve mean for interest rate risk?

c) Assuming no change in interest rates, what happens to the price of a bond as it approaches maturity? Show this graphically for a par, premium, and discount bond.

d) If you expect interest rates to rise (decline), what kind of bond should you buy? Why?

12) Compare and contrast the payback, NPV and IRR techniques for capital budgeting. What are their respective advantages and disadvantages of each? Will they ever give you different recommendations? If so, which would you prefer and why?

13) Draw and label an NPV profile? What does the profile show? How can you use it to assess an individual project or multiple projects? What factor(s) explains the shape of the NPV profile? What other curve does it resemble?

14) Explain the IOS and MCC schedules. What are they; how are they computed; and how can you use them? What is a break point? Use a graph to illustrate your work. Carefully label this graph.

15) Describe and discuss the following terms. Be sure to include where/why they are important and/or how you can use them.

a) Risk adjusted return

b) Annualized net present value

c) Scenario analysis

d) Sensitivity analysis

e) Capital rationing

16) Discuss the weighted average cost of capital: what is it, how do you compute it, why it is important, and what it does it mean for new projects. Is the weighted average cost of capital constant over time? Why or why not?

What are the different ways to determine the weights? Why do some firms use a hurdle rate that is higher than the WACC? What are the implications of using a higher hurdle rate to shareholder wealth maximization?

17) Define operating, financial and total leverage as well as the degree of operating, financial, and total leverage. How do you use them and why are they important? Is the degree of operating, financial, and total leverage constant? Explain why or why not. How do operating and financial leverage affect a company's target capital structure and earnings per share? How and why do businesses adjust for the tradeoff between financial and operating
leverage?

18) Conceptually and graphically discuss how you would determine the optimal capital structure for a specific firm. Include a discussion of the EBIT-EPS approach.

19) Describe the cash conversion cycle, its funding requirements, and the strategies for managing it.

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