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Cross-Border Acquisition Abandonment

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Please critique this article by identifying methodology, gap and key findings.

Dikova, D., Sahib, P. R., & van Witteloostuijn, A. (2009). Cross-border acquisition abandonment and completion: The effect of institutional differences and organizational learning in the international business service industry, 1981-2001. Journal of International Business Studies, 41(2), 223-245.

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Please see the attached file for the tutorial.

NOTES:
1. Please pay attention to your university's suggested citation style. This citation style should also tell you how to format your final paper, e.g. cover paper, headings format, etc.
The researchers, Dikova, Sahib and van Witteloostuijn, set out to investigate a very specific period in the mergers and acquisitions (M&As) process specifically for cross-border acquisitions. In effect the researchers studied the impact of the acquiring and acquired companies' nationalities on the "likelihood that a cross-border acquisition deal will be completed, as well as the time taken for its completion after announcement" (Dikova, Sahib & van Witteloostuijn, 2010, p. 223).
Specifically, the authors tested their hypothesis on M&As in the international business service industry with about 2,389 cross-border acquisitions deals included in the study.
Methodology
I agree with the authors as regards their claim that "pre-merger activities" (Dikova, Sahib & van Witteloostuijn, 2010, p. 223) significantly impact the success of the M&A. The researchers justified their focus on these pre-merger activities with the accompanying costs levied on the company which violates any of the covenants ...

Solution Summary

The cross-border acquisition and abandonment are examined. The institutional differences and organizational learning in the international business service industry are discussed.

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Attached you will find the PDF documents to some practice study problems that I am still trying to grasp and understand. These are the ones that I did not know how to do. Your help is greatly appreciated.

Chapter 8: practice problem 25 on PDF document page 234

Chapter 21: practice problem 8 on PDF document page 595

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