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Discuss the presence of a labor shortage of the female pilots, e.g. i.e. glass ceilings, labor statistics, etc.

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1. Discuss the presence of a labor shortage of the female pilots. I.E. glass ceilings, labor statistics, etc.

The shortage of pilots is indeed feared by many, but is it gender specific (both men and women pilots)? Take into account the generous salaries earned by professional pilots: The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) reports that in 2000 (see http://www.bls.gov/), the median annual salary of airline pilots was $110,940, with more than a quarter of them earning more than $145,000 a year. Women earn slightly less than men, and are grossly underrperesented in the workforce (3.5 % compared to males). Add to that the perk of free or low-cost travel, and there should be more than enough applicants. Actually, the competition - in spite of the large number of job openings - could even be quite fierce.

What might the competitors look like and what accounts for the misrepresentativeness of female pilots in the workforce (3.5 percent)? Indeed the vast majority of pilots today are men, but it is predicted that a significant number of women are likely to be in the running for future positions. According to BLS data, 3 out of every 100 pilots in 2001 (3.5 percent) were female. That number may sound low, but consider that women outnumber blacks and Hispanics in the cockpit by a ratio greater than 2-to-1. And when you look at the gender of pilots by their age, the story grows even more compelling: The chance that a pilot will be a woman is 6.7 percent among pilots 25- to 34-years-old. And when it comes to professional pilots ages 20 to 24, fully a third are of the female persuasion. "Come in tower 1, she's ready for takeoff." http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m4021/is_2002_June_1/ai_88679066

In other words, trends may be changing. The wage is inviting for female pilots, as well. For example, according to this author, Reports from BLS do, at least in part, substantiate that approximately 50 percent of airline pilots in North America will retire over the next ...

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Discusses the presence of a labor shortage of the female pilots, e.g. i.e. glass ceilings, labor statistics, etc. Exampled and research validated.

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Human Resource Management

Can you help me get started with this assignment? There are two parts (Assignment #1 and #2) and I need help with both, please.

Case studies and BFOQ (Bona Fide Occupational Qualification)


Assignment #1
Case study -
Towers Perrin and Hudson Institute Study - HR Executive

Towers Perrin and Hudson Institute conducted a survey of HR executives. What the survey data reveal most clearly is that the workplace of the future is to a great extent already here. Indeed, just 3 years after publication of the Hudson Institute study - and popularization of the phrase Working 2000 - it may be more appropriate to talk to Workforce Today, because many of the employers in the survey group are already struggling with the implications of recruiting and managing a workforce composed less and less of white American males.

Among the survey's key findings are the following:
- The survey companies are in the midst of a sea of change. The average survey company's workforce is already about ½ female. Minorities now compose up to 20 percent of the workforce at just under 60 percent of the survey employees at almost a quarter of the survey group.
- Most of the companies are aware of and concerned about their demographic destiny. As might be expected, given the shifting racial and ethnic mix of employees at many of the survey companies, cultural diversity is the paramount worry for most organizations, with just under ¾ of the respondents noting some degree of management focus on the hiring and promotion of minority employees.

Almost as prevalent is concern about the special needs of female employees, expressed by 68 percent of respondents. On the other hand, relatively few companies are concerned about the aging of their workforce - even though employees age 40 and older make up about 35 percent of the workforce, on average, at the survey companies. The implications of competing in a seller's market for talent are also a key concern. 65 percent of the respondents note concern among their senior management about impending shortfalls in the labor pool. For 36 percent, that level of concern is strong enough - even today - to shape management decisions and corporate strategy. But worries about finding individuals to fill available jobs apparently have not sparked an equal level of concern about prospective workers' abilities to perform effectively on the job. While 65 percent report management concern about labor shortages, 42 percent of the survey respondents cite some level of management concern about a gap between the skills employees possess and those required to get the job done. More telling, perhaps, 46 percent were either unable or unwilling to answer the question on management concern about skill mismatches.

This high percentage of non-respondents (more than 3 times that for any of the other questions relating to management concern about Workforce 2000 issues) may indicate just how unknown this particular territory remains for many companies. Their unfamiliarity with the issue appears great enough to discourage many from making any sort of determination about current or looming skills gap. Many companies are acting on their concerns - formulating new approaches to recruitment, for instance, and exploring different ways to structure the workday or week. But traditional solutions still largely hold sway. The most prevalent approach to helping employees learn and improve skills, for instance, is tuition reimbursement, used by 78 percent of the survey companies. Just 8 percent, by contrast, undertake remedial training, although another 9 percent are piloting a remedial education program and 14 percent are planning to adopt one.
- Recognizing where the problems lie doesn't necessarily lead to targeted solutions. The most common reason for rejecting potential job candidates is inadequate writing or verbal skills. Yet training - either before employment or on the job - doesn't yet appear to be a priority at many companies, if measured by monetary outlays. 2/3 of the group spend less than $2,000 a year on any kind of training for entry-level new hires, and many companies spend nothing at all.
- New approaches to staffing and managing the "new" workforce appear to be a function of the needs of top management and support from top management. Support from the top seems to count strongly in giving human resource professionals the wherewithal to expand their efforts and perhaps experiment with leading-edge programs as well. For example:

a. Among organizations where concern about labor shortages is reflected in strategic plans, 42 percent recruit nontraditional workers (e.g., handicapped or elderly) 51 percent apply a marketing approach to hiring. By contrast, among those that have not yet translated concerns into specific plans, just 16 percent recruit from nontraditional sources and 35 percent "market" to prospective candidates.

b. Remedial education programs are more common at those companies whose strategic plans take into account skills gaps than at those that have not yet planned how to address skill mismatches. 38 percent of the former provide remedial training, compared with 16 percent of the latter.

Need plays a large role in sparking creative problem solving, too. Companies that recruit heavily, for example, are more prone than others to move beyond conventional solutions. Those recruiting more than 300 entry-level workers a year are twice as likely to recruit outside their local areas, build partnerships with educational institutions, and use part-time workers than are companies recruiting less than 75 entry-level workers annually. Similarly, companies with a relatively large percentage of their workforce over age 40 are more likely to use retirees as consultants and special projects than are companies with smaller percentage of workers over 40.

1. What role will demographics be likely to play in the future success or failure of organizations?
2. What conclusions have you reached about the challenges facing HRM?
3. What indicators in the survey results show that strategic HRM decision making must become the rule rather than the exception in organizations?

Exercise 3-1
1. Broadway Actress: Finally a chance to make it big on stage. A company needs four young, liberal-minded females to star in sophisticated adult play off Broadway. The appearance of the person to fit the part is important. Apply in person at
Off Broadway
Stage Forum
New York, NY

BFOQ warranted? YES________ NO________

2. Digital Equipment Assembler: Need females to assemble intricate computer equipment. Must have excellent hand-eye coordination and dexterity. No experience necessary-we train. Apply in person at
Rayco Digital Equipment Co.
Third Street
New Albany, IN
(The owner attended a recent convention of computer manufacturers and heard an industrial psychologist say that a number of sophisticated research studies have shown that women are much more dexterous than men and therefore make better assemblers of intricate parts and equipment.)

BFOQ warranted? YES________ NO________

3. Sales representative: Large title manufacturer needs aggressive salesperson to cover Texas region. Prefer male with extensive title-selling experience. Send resume to
Rachman Title
Trans Street
Houston, TX.

BFOQ warranted? YES________ NO________

4. Flight Attendant: Regional airline needs young, attractive females to fly West Coast routes. Must pass height and weight requirements. Apply at
Flighty Airlines
Mesa Blvd
San Diego, CA
(The human resource director had conducted a study showing that the airline's passengers-mostly male-show a strong preference for attractive female flight attendants. Additionally, the firm's consulting psychologist stated that the airline cabin represent a unique environment in which the psychological needs of passengers are better attended to by females than males.)

BFOQ warranted? YES________ NO________

5. Warehouseman: Small lumber company needs six men to replace striking warehousemen. Job involves lifting and carrying heavy lumber products. Excellent pay and benefits. Apply in person at
Knothole Lumber Co.
Bark and Splinter Street
Macon, GA
BFOQ warranted? YES________ NO________

6. Prison Guard: Need self-confident, muscular, and experienced male facility guard. Must be able to work effectively with others in a potentially violent, dangerous environment. Send resume to
District Attorney for Penal Systems
Illinois Board of Corrections
Springfield, IL.

BFOQ warranted? YES________ NO________

7. Mechanic: Large auto dealer needs several men for light mechanic work. Experienced only need apply. Must have own tools. Apply in person at
Friendly Frank's Foreign Imports
Michigan Ave
Evanston, IL
(The owner informally surveyed the other mechanics about the new employees. They emphatically stated, "We don't want to work around women!" In addition, the owner noted that state law requires separate restrooms for each sex, and that there was only one restroom in the shop. Building another restroom would require a large expenditure, and the space wasn't available.)

BFOQ warranted? YES________ NO________

8. Women's High School Basketball Coach: Coed high school looking for proven female basketball coach. Head coaching experience needed; ability to work with young women 14-18 years old is important. Need at least an undergraduate college degree. Apply in person at

Pasadena High School
Main Street
Pasadena, TX

BFOQ warranted? YES________ NO________

9. A final question: Is it legal for publishers to place ads in the newspaper on the basis of sex, such as "Help wanted- Male" and "Help wanted- Female"?

Application Case 4-1

Solving the Labor Dilemma in a Joint Venture in Japan

John has found himself with a critical labor shortage, and he doesn't know exactly how to solve his problem. John is the founder, president, and CEO of a small manufacturing firm, Johnsco Electronics. The company has approximately 300 employees in its home state of Tennessee. Recently, it was approached by a major Japanese automobile manufacturing company about a possible joint venture in which Johnsco could retain majority ownership. The opportunity seemed attractive, so John agreed to build and operate a plant outside of Tokyo. The plant expected to employ around 500 workers to fabricate and assemble computer components for new automobiles. John had recently discovered the extremely high cost of maintaining a significant number of expatriate managers in a city with cost of living as high as Tokyo. Thus, he agreed to the joint venture expecting to use mostly his host country nationals for the new facility. Unfortunately, John is having problems staffing man of the essential positions. First, he was not aware that equal employment opportunity laws would apply to his international operation. Since John supplies the federal government with certain military components, his hiring practices are scrutinized to see whether minorities and women are appropriately represented in his workforce. Only recently did John discover that few if any Japanese women ever move into managerial positions in Japan. He's confused about how to balance his obligations under U.S. law, local customs in Tokyo, and the high cost of using expatriates. John was led to believe that there would be a large supply of inexpensive labor throughout Asia. He had heard that multinational organizations acquire very inexpensive labor by relying heavily on women to staff labor-intensive production jobs. Culturally, he'd heard, these people defer to authority and are willing to work long, tedious hours.

Once again, however, he discovered that Japan has strict policies prohibiting foreign labor. In fact, nearly 15,000 undocumented aliens were arrested in Tokyo each year while attempting to find work. The Japanese liaison to Johnsco has told John that Japan's workforce is aging even rapidly than the workforce in the U.S. Historically Japanese companies have been dominated by seniority systems that encourage older workers to remain with a single firm until retirement. There are also fewer young, semiskilled workers, because of the ever-increasing percentages of Japanese children who attend college. For example, over half of the more 4 million Japanese blue-collar workers in construction-related fields are older than 50. John is confused about the implications of these facts for his ability to staff the Tokyo operation; he wonders about problems with his company-sponsored retirement programs. And, to add one last problem, John's American plant is almost entirely unionized. The union steward expects two things: (1) any good promotional opportunities created by the international joint venture must give union members the first right of accepting a transfer; and (2) host country nationals who are hired in Japan should be covered by the same union contract as the workers in the U.S. John's enthusiasm over the opportunity to work closely with one of the most powerful automobile makers in the world has diminished. But the agreement is signed, and John now wonders how he can ever get the Tokyo operation off the ground, let alone make a profit, without violating local customs or American laws.


1. What steps can you suggest that might help John solve his labor problems for the new plant in Tokyo?
2. How could he persuade either the union or his joint venture partner to help him with this problem?
3. What type of cultural training, both here and in Japan, might be necessary for John's new venture to be successful?
4. What could John have done differently to eliminate some of his current labor problems?

-------- CONTINUED... ---------

Assignment #2
Question 1
Case Study 6-1
Job Analysis: Assistant store managers at Today's Fashion

Mary Watson was recently promoted to the position of regional sales manager for Today's Fashion, a national chain of specialty clothing stores with 200 outlets across the country. Mary is the regional manager for the Pacific Coast, which is one of Today's Fashion's largest markets. She manages 35 outlets in California and Oregon; each of these outlets has a store manager who reports directly to Mary.

Each outlet has between 3 to 5 assistant store managers, depending on the number of specialty departments. Each assistant manager is responsible for on particular specialty department. These departments vary considerably in size and in the number of sales clerks reporting to the assistant manager. Because the chain's success lies in being receptive to local customers' tastes and buying habits, each store has a different collection of merchandise, and several different combination of departments can be found in Mary's region. The departments include casual wear, formal wear, shoes, cosmetics, and jewelry. Prior to being appointed to the regional sales manager position, Mary had been both a store manager and an assistant manager in a casual wear department. While she was an assistant manager, Mary had often thought that she was responsible for many aspects of store manager that other assistant managers were not held responsible for. In addition, she never really felt comfortable that her store manager had clearly defined her areas of responsibility.

Thus, despite the chain's success, Mary felt that there was considerable room for improvement in how Today's Fashion was managed. As a result, one of the first things Mary did after being appointed to the regional sales position was to initiate a job analysis for the job of assistant store manager. Mary had earned a BBA degree with a marketing emphasis from Wyoming State University. Although she had no formal training in job analysis, she was confident that she could construct an accurate and useful job description and specification for the assistant manager job, primarily because f her personal experience with that position. However, rather than simply writing from her own experience, Mary interviewed 3 current assistant store managers from the outlet closest to her regional office in Sacramento. On the basis of these interviews and her own experience, Mary constructed the job description and job specification shown in Exhibit I (after discussion questions). She hopes that these documents will form the basis of a new selection program that she wants to implement for her region. She believes that the best way to improve store management is to hire assistant managers who are qualified to perform successfully.

Discussion Questions:

1. Critically evaluate the job analysis that Mary conducted for the position of assistant manager. Has she used appropriate methods? What are the strengths and weaknesses of her efforts?
2. What kind of factors about Today's Fashion and its operations should Mary have examined more seriously in order to improve her job analysis?
3. Carefully read the job description and job specifications that Mary prepared. Do they appear to be thorough? Do you think that they are adequate to serve as a basis for a new selection system? How well do you think these documents will work if Mary is sued for discrimination in her hiring practices? Why?

Exhibit I:

Job Title: Assistant Store Manager
Reports to: Store Manager

General Description of the Job
Manages the daily functions of a specialty department in the retail operations. The assistant store manager has responsibility for customer service, supervision of salesclerks, training of new employees, merchandising, and maintenance of inventory.

Principal Duties and Responsibilities
1. Assists customer in merchandise selections, returns, and layaway as needed.
2. Clarifies any questions or problems that a salesclerk encounters.
3. Trains, coordinates, directs, and supervises department salesclerks daily.
4. Maintains inventory records.
5. Prepares the department for opening at the beginning of each day.
6. Ensures that the department remains professionally organized and orderly.

General Qualification Requirements
1. Minimum: Four-year college degree in marketing or related discipline from an accredited program.
1. Minimum: Six months to one year in a retail environment.
2. Preferred: One to three years as a salesclerk for Today's Fashion.

Knowledge, Skills, Abilities:
1. Basic math
2. Effective interpersonal skills
3. Good judgment and independent thought
4. Self-starter / highly motivated
5. High integrity
6. Good typing and computer skills

Physical Requirements:
1. Standing and walking required for more than 90 percent of work time
2. Ability to lift and carry boxes weighting approximately 15 pounds or less

Question 2
Create a job skills inventory of the position you currently hold or one you have held in the recent past.

Question 3
Develop a job description for an aerobics fitness instructor at a large community center or for-profit gym operation.

Question 4
Case Study 8-1
Bechtel Power Corporation's Use of Objective Welding Tests

Charles Ligons, an African American, was a welder at the Iowa Electric Light and Power Duane Arnold Energy Center construction site at Palo, Iowa. He worked at the site for Bechtel Power Corporation. Bechtel required that its welders be qualified in accordance with standards of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Code. That code prescribes objective criteria for testing welders on various types of welding work and for placing them into two categories: (1) A-LH, under which a welder qualifies to perform general welding jobs, and (2) AT-LH, involving more difficult welding procedures.

Prior to his arrival at the Palo site, Ligons passed a test that qualified him under AT-LH to perform heliarc welding. During his first week of employment, however, Ligons was required to report to the test shop for training and testing as a result of observations made by a welding engineer of a weld that Ligons had improperly prepared. Following a one-week training period, Ligons passed a simple plate-welding test but failed the same heliarc-welding test he had passed before coming to Palo. Ligons spent several weeks on at least three separate occasions training to improve his competence in heliarc welding. On February 9, approximately 18 months after coming to Palo site, Ligons was laid off with 58 other welders, all of whom were white. Ligons was informed that he was eligible for rehire when more welders were needed. The layoff was a result of a general reduction of the Palo workforce.

Ligons was rehired in September. He required further training and testing for re-certification. After about one month of training, he passed only the test qualifying him for the least difficult type of welding. About four months after being rehired, he was again laid off with five other welders. Ligons believed that race was a motivating factor in the decision to lay him off. Bechtel claimed, however, that its testing procedures for upgrading a welder's qualifications had a relationship to the jobs for which they were used. It stated that the welding tests were based on objective welding standards set by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Bechtel was contractually bound to ensure that its welders were qualified and that all welding performed on the job compiled with the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Code.

Discussion Questions:
1. Do you believe that welding tests are necessary for the type of job Charles Ligons worked on?
2. Was the first layoff of Ligons legitimate?
3. Did the company attempt to help Ligons maintain and upgrade his welding competence?

Case Application 9-1
Evaluating Store Managers at Bridgestone / Firestone Tire & Rubber

Bridgestone/Firestone is the second-largest tire company in the United States, with about 18 percent of the market. Bridgestone/Firestone manufactures and sells tires and related products for cars, trucks, busses, tractors, and airplanes. The tires are sold to automakers and consumers through 2,100 stores and many independent dealers, including Montgomery Wards. The stores are the vital link to the consumer.


Summary of Duties
Has responsibility for securing maximum sales volume and maximum net profits. Supervises all phases of store operation selling, merchandise display, service, pricing, inventories, credits and collections, operation, and maintenance. Responsible for the control of all store assets and prevention of merchandise shortages.
Interviews, selects, trains, and supervises all employees; follows their progress and development. Conducts employee meetings and follows closely for satisfactory productivity.
Sets sales quotas for employees and follows for accomplishment. Works with salespeople and personally calls on commercial and dealer accounts.
Interprets and explains store operating policies and procedures to subordinates and follows for adherence. Investigates complaints and makes adjustments. Maintains store cleanliness.

A. Human resource administration- 30 percent
1. Directly supervises pivotal employees and, through them, the other employees; directs activities, schedules duties and hours of work, and follows for productivity and sales results. Instructs and directs the instruction of new and present employees in work procedures, results expected, sales quota program, product and price information, and so on, and follows for adherence to instructions. (Daily)
2. Interviews applicants, obtains formal applications, determines qualifications (using employment questionnaires), and selects the best people for open jobs or files applications for future consideration. (Weekly)
3. Determines number of employees needed for profitable store operations, considering individual sales productivity, salary expenses, anticipated human resources requirements, and so on. (Monthly)
4. Prepares, plans for, and conducts employee meetings, instructing about new products and policies, developing sales enthusiasm, explaining incentive programs, holding sales demonstrations, and so on. (Semimonthly)
5. Trains and directs the training of new employees, following established training programs for effective utilization, conducting on-the-job training, and supervising training activities for own employees and those being trained for other assignments. (Weekly)

B. Selling and sales promotion- 30 percent
1. Breaks down store's sales into individual daily amounts for each employee, follows progress of employee in meeting quotas, and determines and takes action necessary to help him or her reach the objective. (Daily)
2. Works with salesperson in setting up sales objective and reviewing accomplishment, using call and sales record sheets, and following to secure maximum sales effort and effective use of time. Makes calls with salesperson to determine effectiveness of contacts, reasons for lack of progress, and so on, giving help in closing sales and securing additional business. (Daily)
3. Contacts personally and by telephone inactive accounts and prospective customers, promoting and soliciting sales of merchandise and services, and following to close the sales. Reviews prospect cards, assigns them to employees, and follows to secure sales from each. (Daily)
4. Contacts selected commercial and dealer accounts for special sales promotion and solicitation, determining sales possibilities and requirements, selling merchandise and services, and so on. (Daily)
5. Prepares advertising copy, following merchandising program suggestions, and arranges for insertion of advertisement in local newspaper. Makes sure employees are alerted and store has merchandise to back up advertising. (Weekly)
6. Maintains a firm retail, commercial, and wholesale pricing program according to established policies. (Weekly)

C. Inventory sales and expense control- 15 percent
1. Reviews stock turnover records for overstock conditions, determines necessary corrective steps, and takes the appropriate action. Establishes stock levels and orders according to sales results recorded in the stock ledgers of new tires and retreads. (Also major appliances monthly)
2. Prepares sales and expense budget covering projected sales and expenses for the period. (Monthly)
3. Reviews expense control sheet, comparing actual expenses with budget figures; determines and takes action necessary to keep within the approved budget. (Daily)
4. Is responsible for the completeness and accuracy of all inventories, accounting inventories, markup, markdown inventories, and so on.

D. Checking- 10 percent
1. Checks stock, automotive equipment, service floor, and so on, continually observing store activities and determining that equipment in maintained in good operating condition. Makes inspection trips through all parts of the store, checking observations of safety and fire precautions, protection of company assets, and so on. Check credit information secured for commercial and dealer accounts, and works with office and credit manager in setting up credit limits. (Weekly)
2. Is responsible for and investigates all cash shortages, open tickets, and missing tickets.
3. Investigates customer complaints, making adjustments or taking appropriate action for customer satisfaction. (Daily)

E. Miscellaneous functions- 15 percent
1. Reads and signs Store Operating Policy and Office Procedure Letters; analyzes and puts into operation new policies and procedures as received. (Weekly)
2. Prepares letter to district manager covering progress of the store, store plans, results secured, market and special conditions, and so on. (Monthly)
3. Inspects tire and other merchandise in for adjustment, determines appropriate settlement, prepares claim forms, and issues credit, replaces, and so on. Makes all policy adjustments. (Daily)
4. Attends district sales and civic organization meetings and take part in civic affairs, community drives, and so on. (Weekly)

Discussion Questions:
1. Do you consider the description of the Firestone store manager's responsibilities important information that the raters of managers need to be knowledgeable about?
2. Does the portion of the performance evaluation form used at Bridgestone/Firestone require any subjective judgment or considerations on the part of the rater?
3. Suppose that Bridgestone/Firestone manager received and outstanding performance evaluation. Does this mean that he or she is promotable? Why?

Question 2
Name and discuss four techniques of job evaluation. Include advantages and disadvantages of each.

Question 3
Define the term broadbanding. How does it relate to traditional job evaluation outcomes like pay ranges and classes?


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