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# They say Japanese car makers put out the best cars in the wo

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"They say Japanese car makers put out the best cars in the world, all things considered, but that can't be right because the Toyota I bought last year had to be returned to the shop five times!" The target in this statement is:

"my Toyota."
"Japanese cars."
"the best cars in the world."
all Toyota models.

Which of the following statements is true of a disjunction of two claims?
Answer It is false if and only if both of the simpler claims that make it up are false.

It is true if and only if both of the simpler claims that make it up are true.
It is false if and only if its antecedent is true and its consequent is false.
It is always true.

Consider the following passage:
Julia sells exotic birds. She has placed four orders with wholesale bird supplier Papagayo Co., and all of them have been filled with healthy birds. Lately, however, some wholesale competitors have been trying to get her to order from them. However, when it's time to make the next order, she decides she's better off with Papagayo because she's pretty sure she'll get healthy birds. (Do not assume that you know anything about birds or the bird business.) Given the original circumstances, which of these conclusions would produce the strongest argument?

Most of the birds in the new shipment will be healthy.
All the birds in the new shipment will be healthy.
None of the birds in the new shipment will be healthy.
Some of the birds in the new shipment will be able to swear in two languages.

"They say Japanese car makers put out the best cars in the world, all things considered, but that can't be right because the Toyota I bought last year had to be returned to the shop five times!" The sample in this statement is:

"my Toyota."
"Japanese cars."
"the best cars in the world."
all Toyota models.

With the same confidence level, a generalization from a larger sample will have:

less strength.
a smaller error margin.
a larger error margin.
a larger target population.

In an inductive generalization, in order to achieve an error margin of plus or minus 3 percentage points at a confidence level of about 95 percent, what's the smallest random sample we can get away with, regardless of the size of the target population?

10 percent of the target population
100 percent of the target population
500 percent of the target population
1,000 percent of the target population
5,000

Consider the following passage:
Julia sells exotic birds. She has placed four orders with wholesale bird supplier Papagayo Co., and all of them have been filled with healthy birds. Lately, however, some wholesale competitors have been trying to get her to order from them. However, when it's time to make the next order, she decides she's better off with Papagayo because she's pretty sure she'll get healthy birds. (Do not assume that you know anything about birds or the bird business.) The feature in this passage is:

"the Papagayo Company."
"Julia."
"being healthy birds."
"the next order."
"Papagayo's competitors."

Consider the following passage:
Julia sells exotic birds. She has placed four orders with wholesale bird supplier Papagayo Co., and all of them have been filled with healthy birds. Lately, however, some wholesale competitors have been trying to get her to order from them. However, when it's time to make the next order, she decides she's better off with Papagayo because she's pretty sure she'll get healthy birds. (Do not assume that you know anything about birds or the bird business.) The comparison term in the passage is:

"the new order."
"the previous four orders."
"the Papagayo Co."
"the competitors."

Determine which of the lettered claims below is equivalent to the following statement: "Although Steve can give blood, he has not been tested." (This is easy to do if you symbolize the claims first and have some familiarity either with truth tables or with the Group II rules for derivations-the truth-functional equivalences.)

If Steve can give blood, then he has been tested.
If Steve has been tested, then he can give blood.
Steve cannot give blood, and he has not been tested.
Steve has not been tested, but he can give blood.

How many rows would a truth table need to have for an argument containing 3 terms?

4
8
16
2

#### Solution Preview

They say Japanese car makers put out the best cars in the world, all things considered, but that can't be right because the Toyota I bought last year had to be returned to the shop five times! The target in this statement is:

"my Toyota."
"Japanese cars."
"the best cars in the world."
all Toyota models.

Which of the following statements is true of a disjunction of two claims?
Answer It is false if and only if both of the simpler claims that make it up are false.

It is true if and only if both of the simpler claims that make it up are true.
It is false if and only if its antecedent is true and its consequent is false.
It is always true.

Consider the following passage:
Julia sells exotic birds. She has placed four orders with wholesale bird supplier Papagayo Co., and all of them have been filled with healthy birds. Lately, however, some wholesale competitors have been trying to get her to order from them. However, when it's time to make the next order, she decides she's better off with Papagayo because she's pretty sure she'll get healthy birds. (Do not assume that you know anything about birds or the bird business.) Given the original circumstances, which of these conclusions would produce the strongest argument?

Most of the birds in the new shipment will be healthy.
All the birds in the new shipment will be healthy.
None of the birds in the new shipment will be healthy.
Some of the birds in the new shipment will be able to swear in two languages.

"They say Japanese car makers put out the best cars in the world, all things considered, but that can't be right because the Toyota I bought last year had to be returned to the shop five times!" The sample in this statement is:

"my Toyota."
"Japanese cars."
"the best cars in the world."
all Toyota models.

With the same confidence level, a generalization from a larger sample ...

#### Solution Summary

They say Japanese car makers put out the best cars in the world, all things considered, but that can't be right because the Toyota I bought last year had to be returned to the shop five times! The target in this statement is:

"my Toyota."
"Japanese cars."
"the best cars in the world."
all Toyota models.

Which of the following statements is true of a disjunction of two claims?
Answer It is false if and only if both of the simpler claims that make it up are false.

It is true if and only if both of the simpler claims that make it up are true.
It is false if and only if its antecedent is true and its consequent is false.
It is always true.

Consider the following passage:
Julia sells exotic birds. She has placed four orders with wholesale bird supplier Papagayo Co., and all of them have been filled with healthy birds. Lately, however, some wholesale competitors have been trying to get her to order from them. However, when it's time to make the next order, she decides she's better off with Papagayo because she's pretty sure she'll get healthy birds. (Do not assume that you know anything about birds or the bird business.) Given the original circumstances, which of these conclusions would produce the strongest argument?

Most of the birds in the new shipment will be healthy.
All the birds in the new shipment will be healthy.
None of the birds in the new shipment will be healthy.
Some of the birds in the new shipment will be able to swear in two languages.

"They say Japanese car makers put out the best cars in the world, all things considered, but that can't be right because the Toyota I bought last year had to be returned to the shop five times!" The sample in this statement is:

"my Toyota."
"Japanese cars."
"the best cars in the world."
all Toyota models.

With the same confidence level, a generalization from a larger sample will have:

less strength.
a smaller error margin.
a larger error margin.
a larger target population.

In an inductive generalization, in order to achieve an error margin of plus or minus 3 percentage points at a confidence level of about 95 percent, what's the smallest random sample we can get away with, regardless of the size of the target population?

10 percent of the target population
100 percent of the target population
500 percent of the target population
1,000 percent of the target population
5,000

Consider the following passage:
Julia sells exotic birds. She has placed four orders with wholesale bird supplier Papagayo Co., and all of them have been filled with healthy birds. Lately, however, some wholesale competitors have been trying to get her to order from them. However, when it's time to make the next order, she decides she's better off with Papagayo because she's pretty sure she'll get healthy birds. (Do not assume that you know anything about birds or the bird business.) The feature in this passage is:

"the Papagayo Company."
"Julia."
"being healthy birds."
"the next order."
"Papagayo's competitors."

Consider the following passage:
Julia sells exotic birds. She has placed four orders with wholesale bird supplier Papagayo Co., and all of them have been filled with healthy birds. Lately, however, some wholesale competitors have been trying to get her to order from them. However, when it's time to make the next order, she decides she's better off with Papagayo because she's pretty sure she'll get healthy birds. (Do not assume that you know anything about birds or the bird business.) The comparison term in the passage is:

"the new order."
"the previous four orders."
"the Papagayo Co."
"the competitors."

Determine which of the lettered claims below is equivalent to the following statement: "Although Steve can give blood, he has not been tested." (This is easy to do if you symbolize the claims first and have some familiarity either with truth tables or with the Group II rules for derivations-the truth-functional equivalences.)

If Steve can give blood, then he has been tested.
If Steve has been tested, then he can give blood.
Steve cannot give blood, and he has not been tested.
Steve has not been tested, but he can give blood.

How many rows would a truth table need to have for an argument containing 3 terms?

4
8
16
2

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