What is the relationship between deductive and inductive arguments? Why are both types valuable in research? Provide examples of each type, illustrating benefits of their usage.
With inductive reasoning, we draw a conclusion from a specific example to a general rule. With deductive reasoning, we know a general rule, and we predict a specific outcome that would entail a new application of that rule.
Both can play an important role in research. When we are working on a new problem and don't know much about it, we're doing exploratory research. We're really exploring the field and the outcomes, so we don't have a general rule or theory to work from. In this case, we might do one of the first studies ...