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Deductive and inductive arguments

What is the relationship between deductive and inductive arguments? Why are both types valuable in research? Provide examples of each type, illustrating benefits of their usage.

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With inductive reasoning, we draw a conclusion from a specific example to a general rule. With deductive reasoning, we know a general rule, and we predict a specific outcome that would entail a new application of that rule.

Both can play an important role in research. When we are working on a new problem and don't know much about it, we're doing exploratory research. We're really exploring the field and the outcomes, so we don't have a general rule or theory to work from. In this case, we might do one of the first studies ...