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Externality

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What is an externality? Can you give an example of a positive externality and another of a negative externality? In what way does the patent system help society solve an externality problem?

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https://brainmass.com/business/compensation-strategies/externality-253979

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According to Econterms, externality is an effect of a purchase or use decision by one set of parties on others who did not have a choice and whose interests were not taken into account. In other words, externalities are the side-effects created when a market outcome affects other parties than the buyers and sellers in the market. They cause markets to become inefficient and ineffective thereby failing to maximize the total surplus. Another way to define externality is when a person engages in an activity that influences the well-being of others and yet not one of them pays or receives any compensation for that effect, an externality arises. Another way is to describe these externalities as third party spill-over effects which arises from production and/or consumption of goods and services for which no appropriate compensation is paid (Tutor2u). In short, externality is a term in ...

Solution Summary

The solution defines externality, gives examples of positive and negative externalities and it also discusses how the patent system helps society solve an externality problem. References included.

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Short answer questions about externality

1. Which of the following describes an externality and which does not? Explain the difference.
a. A policy of restricted coffee exports in Brazil causes the U.S. price of coffee to riseâ?"an increase which in turn also causes the price of tea to rise.
b. An advertising blimp distracts a motorist who then hits a telephone pole.

2. Consider a market in which a firm has monopoly power. Suppose in addition that the firm produces under the presence of either a positive or a negative externality. Does the externality necessarily lead to a greater misallocation of resources?

3. George and Stan live next door to each other. George likes to plant flowers in his garden, but every time he does, Stan's dog comes over and digs them up. Stan's dog is causing the damage, so if economic efficiency is to be achieved, it is necessary that Stan pay to put up a fence around his yard to confine the dog. Do you agree or disagree? Explain.

4 Why does free access to a common property resource generate an inefficient outcome?

5. A village is located next to 1000 acres of prime grazing land. The village presently owns the land and allows all residents to graze cows freely. Some members of the village council have suggested that the land is being overgrazed. Is this likely to be true? These same members have also suggested that the village should either require grazers to purchase an annual permit or sell off the land to the grazers. Would either of these be a good idea?

6. Public television is funded in part by private donations, even though anyone with a television set can watch for free. Can you explain this phenomenon in light of the free rider problem?

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