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Common design challenges all organizations face

Can you help me with these questions?

What are common design challenges all organizations face?
What are the common design elements in a high-commitment work system?
Explain each factor briefly.

Describe your perfect organization in these terms.

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Common design challenges that organizations face
Organizations are faced with a challenge of developing an organizational structure that would fully support the operations as a whole and would enable people to work effectively and efficiently towards attainment of goals and objectives.
The challenge of coming up with a functional, cost-effective, and cost - efficient design is a result of the need for the organization to cope with environmental realities such as globalization, competition, changes in technology, government regulations, composition of the population, economy, and socio - cultural aspects.

Design elements in a high-commitment work system
According to Robbins and Coulter (2002), organizational design is a process that involves decisions about key elements that include the following:

1. Work Specialization
The idea here is that an employee should turn out to be an expert in a particular job that forms a part of an activity. An activity is normally divided into jobs and assigned to each personnel. As the employee repeatedly works on a particular job, he develops his mastery on it, until such time that he would require minimal degree of supervision.

2. Departmentalization
This involves subdividing the organization into manageable parts that may be in the form of departments, divisions, sections, or business units. This is often facilitated by grouping similar jobs or similar or related functions and designating someone to oversee the group's or unit's operations.
Departmentalization is done in varied ways, depending on several factors such as the company's nature of business, the scope of operations, organizational focus, and company resources. At times, an organization is departmentalized according to product. This is applied when ...

Solution Summary

Common design challenges for organizations face are examined.