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    1. a. Why is "level of measurement" important,
    b. What is level of measurement, and
    c. Why is the level important?

    2. What is necessary for the temperature measurement to be called Interval?
    Is there a way to use the temperature measurement so it is a Ratio level?

    3. What are the requirements to prove causality?

    4. We talk about sampling and questionnaires. Let us look at background and do some reflection and investigation into what will help us in practice. How is the data collected? There is a whole series of questions we use to sort through the data. Generally there are four typical means of collecting data: surveys, focus groups, observational studies, and data mining. The data collected may be primary or secondary data sources. When planning to collect data the questions fall into three general types: administrative, target and classification. Even when collecting secondary data we end up asking these three types of questions because we organize our results along these lines. Administrative questions are for general information. Target questions involve the specific information pertinent to the research question. Classification questions are exactly that. Unfortunately, all methods of data collection are subject to error, bias, abuse, and misuse. This is another reason for vigilance in determining design validity, measurement validity and reliability, and ethics.

    When considering the ethical implications of research there are six major groups that must be considered. The groups are: the participant, the researcher, management, the business, and society. Each group has expectations and rights and each group owes others certain rights. There is considerable information available and discussion on the rights of each group. In summary, each expects (should demand): privacy, honesty, objectivity choice, safety, informed, and respect. In practice, unethical behavior negatively affects every area of business. Most organization and business groups have established and publish codes of conduct (ethical standards).

    Any comments on how effective is self-policing of organizations for ethical impropriety?

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    Solution Preview

    1. a. Why is "level of measurement" important

    Level of measurement is important for a number of reasons. A person will want to know if quantitative, qualitative or a mixed methods approach is necessary within their given study. Without knowing the level of measurement, one does not know how to go about getting the most data from his or her participants within their given topic. This can hinder the individual in becoming a success in analyzing their given data at that given time. Eventually, he or she will have to decide which direction to go in order to want to use all levels of measurement or specific one's within his or her given research.

    b. What is level of measurement?

    Level of measurement consists of nominal, ordinal and interval data. Nominal is that of demographics. Ordinal consists of rankings or grades. Interval deals with money or education.

    c. Why is the level important?

    The level is important because a person has to decide if he or she wants their study nominal, ordinal, or interval. Furthermore, the design will consist of quantitative, qualitative or a mixed methods approach. These are all worth considering when making a decision that will impact his or her results positively or negatively within the chosen population and sample size.

    2. What is necessary for the temperature measurement to be called Interval?

    Temperature is interval data because of how much it fluctuates. One will see this more ...

    Solution Summary

    This solution discussed "level of measurement," interval and ratio, causality and ethics.