# Financial question

1) Explain the three principal forms of business organization. Outline their respective advantages and disadvantages. How do taxes, risk, scale, and ownership liquidity affect the selection of one of these three methods?

2) Compare the shareholder-wealth-maximization model with the corporate-wealth- maximization model. What is the proxy for shareholder wealth? How does the role of the shareholder conflict with that of other stakeholder? Who are some of the stakeholder and give examples of potential conflicts. Additionally, what is meant by the agency problem, why does it arise, and what may be done to address it?

3) Discuss the three components of a cash flow statement. What is another name for the statement of cash flows and why is the cash flow statement important? How is the statement of cash flows similar or different from a cash budget?

4) Outline the five classes of financial ratios (you do not need to give the formulas). What are the advantages and disadvantage to using ratio analysis? What do you need to be mindful of when doing ratio analysis? What is the DuPont ratio, what are its components, and why is it important?

5) Time value of money

a) What is the difference between compounding and discounting?

b) What are the five variables in a time value calculation?

c) What is the difference between an annuity and a mixed cash flow?

d) What is the difference between an ordinary annuity and an annuity due? Which has a greater future value and why?

e) Give examples where you may use time value in your own life.

6) How do you measure the return and total risk for a single asset? What is the difference between portfolio risk and stand alone risk? What is the difference between systematic risk and unique risk? What is the tradeoff between risk and return? How does risk change (absolutely and incrementally) as you randomly add assets to a portfolio? What effect does

the risk of a single asset and the correlation between assets in a portfolio have on portfolio risk?

7) What is the capital asset pricing model (CAPM); what does it show; why is it important: and how do you use it? What are some of the practical and theoretical limitations of the CAPM?

8) Describe and compare the zero-growth, constant-growth, and multi-stage dividend growth models for equity valuation. What assumptions must you make? How do changes in the growth rate and the cost of capital affect valuation?

11) Bonds

a) Using a bond price yield curve, discuss in detail the relationship between bond prices and the yield to maturity.

b) How do maturity and the size of the coupon affect the shape of the bond price yield curve? Explain. What does the shape of the bond price yield curve mean for interest rate risk?

c) Assuming no change in interest rates, what happens to the price of a bond as it approaches maturity? Show this graphically for a par, premium, and discount bond.

d) If you expect interest rates to rise (decline), what kind of bond should you buy? Why?

12) Compare and contrast the payback, NPV and IRR techniques for capital budgeting. What are their respective advantages and disadvantages of each? Will they ever give you different recommendations? If so, which would you prefer and why?

13) Draw and label an NPV profile? What does the profile show? How can you use it to assess an individual project or multiple projects? What factor(s) explains the shape of the NPV profile? What other curve does it resemble?

14) Explain the IOS and MCC schedules. What are they; how are they computed; and how can you use them? What is a break point? Use a graph to illustrate your work. Carefully label this graph.

15) Describe and discuss the following terms. Be sure to include where/why they are important and/or how you can use them.

a) Risk adjusted return

b) Annualized net present value

c) Scenario analysis

d) Sensitivity analysis

e) Capital rationing

16) Discuss the weighted average cost of capital: what is it, how do you compute it, why it is important, and what it does it mean for new projects. Is the weighted average cost of capital constant over time? Why or why not?

What are the different ways to determine the weights? Why do some firms use a hurdle rate that is higher than the WACC? What are the implications of using a higher hurdle rate to shareholder wealth maximization?

17) Define operating, financial and total leverage as well as the degree of operating, financial, and total leverage. How do you use them and why are they important? Is the degree of operating, financial, and total leverage constant? Explain why or why not. How do operating and financial leverage affect a company's target capital structure and earnings per share? How and why do businesses adjust for the tradeoff between financial and operating

leverage?

18) Conceptually and graphically discuss how you would determine the optimal capital structure for a specific firm. Include a discussion of the EBIT-EPS approach.

19) Describe the cash conversion cycle, its funding requirements, and the strategies for managing it.

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#### Solution Preview

Proprietorship, Partnership, and Corporation or Company are three principal forms of business organization.

Company or Corporation form of business organization:

This form of the ...

Answers to Various Financial Questions

Jenny just married Tim. Jenny remains to work as a cashier for a restaurant, and her monthly income has averaged $2,840 a month over the past year. Tim is working as a computer programmer and earns $3,000 a month. Their shared monthly income let them to live comfortably. Yet they have been unable to save any money for urgent situation.

According to Tim, "It's hard to believe, but we don't even have a savings account because we spend almost everything we make." Every month, they deposit each of their paychecks in separate checking accounts. Tim pays the rent and makes the car payment. Pam buys the groceries and pays the utilities. They use the money left over to purchase new clothes and the other "necessities" for enjoying life.

In an effort to make wise use of credit, the Turner have examined various sources that could serve their current and future financial needs. In the assessment process, they compared the APR along with various fees and potential charges.

Tim and Jenny are also learning about various actions that might be useful if they encounter credit troubles. Their discussions with friends and money management advisers provided expanded knowledge of credit counseling and bankruptcy alternatives.

Life Situation Financial Data

Recently Married

Pam, 26

Josh, 28

Renting an Apartment Monthly income $5,840

Living expenses $3,900

Assets $13,500

Liabilities $4,800

Emergency fund $1,000

Q1. What is the minimum amount that the Turner should have in an emergency fund? What actions might be taken to increase the amount in this fund?

1. Lucy lacks cash to pay for a $720 dishwasher. She could buy it from the store on credit by making 12 monthly payments of $65. The total cost would then be $780. Instead, Lucy decides to deposit $60 a month in the bank until she has saved enough money to pay cash for the dishwasher. One year later, she has saved $770.40—$720 in deposits plus interest. When she goes back to the store, she finds the dishwasher now costs $849.60. Its price has gone up 18 percent, the current rate of inflation.

From the financial standpoint, was postponing her purchase a good trade-off for Lucy?

Yes ___

No ___

2. Malou is trying to decide whether she can afford a loan she needs in order to go to chiropractic school. Right now Malou is living at home and works in a shoe store, earning a gross income of $3250 per month. Her employer deducts a total of $150 for taxes from her monthly pay. Malou also pays $100 on credit card debt each month. The loan she needs for chiropractic school will cost an additional $140 per month.

Calculate her debt payments-to-income ratio without college loan. Remember to convert your answer to a percentage!

Make sure to include zeros and the period in your answer.

Round your answer to 2 decimal places. i.e. 16.55, 12.32

Your Answer: ______

3. Sally is trying to decide whether she can afford a loan she needs in order to go to chiropractic school. Right now Sally is living at home and works in a shoe store, earning a gross income of $2990 per month. Her employer deducts a total of $200 for taxes from her monthly pay. Sally also pays $100 on credit card debt each month. The loan she needs for chiropractic school will cost an additional $100 per month.

Calculate her debt payments-to-income ratio with college loan. Don't forget to convert your answer to a percentage.

Make sure to include zeros and the period in your answer.

Round your answer to 2 decimal places. i.e. 20.12, 31.89

Your Answer: ________

4. A few years ago, Josh purchased a home for $137000. Today the home is worth $158000. His remaining mortgage balance is $57000.

Assuming Josh can borrow up to 76 percent of the market value of his home, what is the maximum amount he can borrow?

Round your answer to the nearest whole number.

Your Answer: __________

5. What would be the net annual cost of the following checking account?

Monthly fee : $11.55

Processing fee: $0.64 per check

Checks written: Average of 78 a month

Round your answer to the nearest whole number.

Your Answer:_______