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    identify the cultural barriers

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    Translating a companies profile and other software into different languages. This translation software would help you:

    < Translate web pages written in a foreign language
    < Translate e-mail messages into/from a foreign language
    < Translate letters, facsimile, reports and memos in a foreign language
    < Translate manuals and books into/from a foreign language
    < Learn new words and phrases of a foreign language
    < Interactively learn how to pronounce new words and phrases of a foreign language

    The software that we will provide contains dictionaries, for example, there would be a Spanish to English Dictionary, a French to English dictionary etc. These dictionaries can be modified to suit the customer or viewers needs. In addition to Spanish translation, there is for example; French translation, German translation etc. The installation for this software would be very easy and reliable. From Installation To Translation Simply install the software on your computer and access translation plugins directly from the Office desktop. Translate entire documents within Word, emails in Outlook, Web pages in Internet Explorer, spreadsheets in Excel, or presentations in PowerPoint. Some of the key features we would use would consist of:

    < Train the software to understand your company's terminology — add up to 500 unique words into a dictionary
    < Integrated spell-checking
    < Side-by-side comparisons of the original document and its translation for easy review and editing
    < Document formatting is preserved
    < Select the geographic variations of the language your document will be translated into
    < Automatic dictionary updates so you can keep pace with the constant evolution of language

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    POSTING 95011
    It is amazing how different people in other cultures behave. For those who must work in international business, understanding these differences is essential. We tend to believe that 'deep inside' all people are the same. Human instinct tells us that - but in reality we are not all the same. Therefore, when we go into another country to make decisions based on how we operate in our own home country - the chances are we'll make some very bad decisions.
    The Web has enabled global distribution of products and services. Analysts agree that well designed user interfaces improve the performance and appeal of the Web by helping to convert 'browsers' into 'customers'. In the user-interface development process attention is focused on understanding users and acknowledging their demographic diversity, including worldwide cultures. Companies that want to do international business on the web must consider the impact of culture on the understanding and use of their web-based communication, content and tools.
    In many web-based projects, the interplay of user, business, marketing and engineering requirements are very complex. The development process includes iterative steps of planning, research, analysis, design, evaluation, documentation and training. Developers must consider their own cultural orientation and understand the preferred structures and processes of other cultures as well. Doing so would help organization achiever more desirable global solutions. This would also help in determining to what extent localized, customized designs might be better than international or universal ones.
    Cultures, even with some countries, are very different. The differences can go deeper than mere appearance; they often reflect strong cultural values. How does an organization understand cultural differences without falling into the trap of stereotyping other cultures?
    During 1978-83, the Dutch cultural anthropologist Geert Hofstede conducted detailed interviews with hundreds of IBM employees in 53 countries. Thru his analysis he was able to determine patterns of similarities and differences. From this data analysis, he formulated his theory that word cultures vary along consistent, fundamental dimensions.
    Geert Hofstede's research gives insights into other cultures so that we can be more effective when interacting with people in other countries. If understood and applied properly, this information should reduce our level of frustration, anxiety, and concern about working with other countries.
    One example of cultural differences in business is between the Middle Eastern countries and the Western countries, especially the United States. When negotiating in Western countries, the objective is to work toward a target of mutual understanding and agreement; 'shaking-hands' when that agreement is reached is a cultural signal of the end of negotiations; then the business of 'working together' starts. In Middle Eastern countries much negotiation takes place leading into the 'agreement', signified by shaking hands. However, the deal is not complete in the Middle Eastern culture. In fact, it is a cultural sign that 'serious' negotiations are just beginning. This is just one example why it is critical to understand other cultures you may be doing business with - whether on a vacation in a foreign country, or negotiating a multi-million dollar deal for your company.
    • Power Distance Index (PDI) - focuses on the degree of equality, or inequality, between people in the country's society. A High Power Distance ranking indicates that inequalities of power and wealth have been allowed to grow within the society. These societies are more likely to follow a caste system that does not allow significant upward mobility of its citizens. A Low Power Distance ranking indicates the society de-emphasizes the differences between citizen's power and wealth. In these societies equality and opportunity for everyone is stressed.
    o Hofstede claims that high PD countries tend to have centralized political power and exhibit tall hierarchies in organizations with large differences in salary and status. Parents teach obedience and expect respect. Teachers posses wisdom and are automatically esteemed. Inequalities are expected and may even be desired
    o Low PD countries tend to view subordinates and supervisors as closer together with flatter hierarchies in organization and less difference in salaries and status. Parents and children and teachers and students may view themselves more as equals but not identical. Equality is expected and desired. Low PD countries tend to have higher geographic latitude, smaller populations and/or higher gross domestic product (GDP) per capita than high PD countries.
    Based on this definition, the PD index may influence the following aspects of user-interface and Web Design:
    o Access to information
    o Emphasis on the social and moral order
    o Focus on expertise, authority, experts, certifications, official stamps/logos
    o Prominence given to leaders vs. citizens, customers or employees
    o Importance of security and restrictions or barrier to access
    o Social roles used to organize information

    • Individualism (IDV) - focuses on the degree the society reinforces individual or collective achievement and interpersonal relationships. A High Individualism ranking indicates that individuality and individual rights are paramount within the society. Individuals in these societies may tend to form a larger number of looser relationships. A Low Individualism ranking typifies societies of a more collectivist nature with close ties between individuals. These cultures reinforce extended families and collectives where everyone takes responsibility for fellow members of their group.
    • Collectivism implies that people are integrated from birth into strong, cohesive groups that protect them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty.
    o Hofstede found that individualistic cultures value personal time, freedom, challenge and such extrinsic motivators as material rewards at work. In family relations, they value honesty/truth, talking things out, using guilt to achieve behavioral goals and maintaining self-respect. These societies and governments
     place individual social-economic interests over the group
     maintain strong rights to privacy
     nuture strong private opinions,
     restrain the power of the state in the economy
     emphasize the political power of voters
     maintain strong freedom of the press, and
     profess the ideologies of self-actualization, self-realization, self-government and freedom
    o Collectivist cultures value training, physical conditions, skills and the intrinsic rewards of mastery. In family relations, they value harmony more than truth and honesty, silence more the speech, use shame to achieve behavioral goals and strive to maintain face. Collectivist societies and governments place collective social-economic interests over the individual, may invade private life and regulate opinions, favor laws and rights for groups over individuals, dominate the economy, control the press, and profess the ideologies of harmony, consensus and equality.
    Based on this definition, the IDV index may influence the following aspects of user-interface and Web Design:
    o Motivation based on personal achievement, expect the extra-ordinary for individualist cultures vs. underplayed (in favor of group achievement) for collectivist cultures
    o Images of success: demonstrated thru materialism and consumerism vs. achievement of social-political agendas
    o Rhetorical style: controversial/argumentative speech and tolerance or encouragement of extreme claims vs. official slogans and subdued hyperbole and controversy
    o Prominence given youth and action vs. aged, experienced, wise leaders and states of being
    o Importance given individuals vs. products shown by themselves or with groups
    o Underlying sense of social morality: emphasis on truth vs. relationships
    o Emphasis on change: what is new and unique vs. tradition and history, and
    o Willingness to provide personal information vs. protection of personal data differentiating the individual from the group.

    • Masculinity (MAS) vs. Feminity. Focuses on the degree the society reinforces, or does not reinforce, the traditional masculine work role model of male achievement, control, and power. A High Masculinity ranking indicates the country experiences a high degree of gender differentiation. In these cultures, males dominate a significant portion of the society and power structure, with females being controlled by male ...

    Solution Summary

    Your tutorial is 5,438 words and seven references. The expert identifies the cultural barriers.