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Photosynthesis and Cellular respiration description

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This solution describes the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration, as well as how they are linked between plants and animals based on the reactants and products (water, carbon dioxide, glucose and oxygen) of both pathways. Include a description of how energy is transferred from sunlight to ATP, from ATP to sugars, and from sugars to cells.

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PHOTOSYNTHESIS OVERVIEW

The sunlight strikes the leaf and an electron gets excited, instead of falling back down to the ground state, it gets captured by P680 a special electron acceptor in photosystem II. This reaction requires water as a source of electrons. Water is split in the process, releasing diatomic oxygen as a byproduct.ATP is produced from ADP in the process. The electron then travels through a series of redox(oxidation reduction) reactions, similiar to the electron transport chain in cellular respiration. From there the electron enters photosystem I and another electron acceptor called P700 captures the electron and excites it to still a higher energy state. At this point, the electron travels through another series of redox reactions and NADP+ is used to form NADPH, which is an important compound used in the light independent reactions also known as the dark reactions. This energy is used in the light independent reactions.
Some electrons enter the light reactions through photosystem I and cycle through this reaction center. The electrons used in this process are used to produce ATP only. The light reactions occur in the grana of the chloroplast.

DARK OR LIGHT INDEPENDENT REACTIONS

NADPH is used in the light independent reactions to form macromolecules. This is also called the Calvin Cycle. In the first step of this process, Carbon dioxide is captured by Ribulose bisPhosphate (RUBP) to form 3 Phosphoglycerate, via a series of unstable intermediate compounds. The Phosphoglycerate then continues through the ...

Solution Summary

This solution is comprised of a detailed description of photosynthesis and cellular respiration. It compares both processes using technical terms that are common in a COLLEGE LEVEL FRESHMAN biology class. A brief definition of the TECHNICAL terms is included for greater understanding.

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Explain how photosynthesis and respiration are linked in order to provide you with energy from the food you eat.
Include in the essay:
Complete descriptions of photosynthesis and aerobic respiration.
Describe how these two processes are linked between plants and animals based on the reactants and products (water, carbon dioxide, glucose and oxygen) of both pathways.
Include a description of how energy is transferred from sunlight to ATP, from ATP to sugars, and from sugars to your cells.

2. In the absence of oxygen some cells and organisms can use glycolysis coupled to fermentation to produce energy from the sugar created by photosynthesis.

Explain the role of fermentation in allowing an organism to generate energy for its cell(s) in the absence of oxygen.
Include any reactions required for this process, and explain how the energy from the sun ends up as chemical energy for the anaerobic organism or cell.

3. Cells use enzymes as biological catalysts to increase or accelerate the rate of reactions, such as those in photosynthesis or glycolysis. This allows reactions to occur under conditions that sustain life.

Explain how an enzyme catalyzes a reaction. Include in your essay the three main steps of the cycle of enzyme-substrate interactions.
How is enzyme activity regulated by the cell?

Reference:
Audesirk, T., Audesirk, G., and Byers, B. (2008). Biology - Life on earth with physiology (8th Ed.). San Francisco, CA: Benjamin Cummings.

The essays should be several paragraphs in length for each question, be thoroughly paraphrased, and include appropriate in-text citations and a reference list in APA format.

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