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    Adding groups to outer surface of drugs for transport

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    When biomedical researchers design drugs that must enter cells to be effective, they sometimes add methyl (CH3) groups all over the outer surface to make the drug molecules more likely to pass through cell membranes. Conversly,when researchers design drugs that act on the exterior of cell membranes, they sometimes add a charged group to decrease the likelihood that the drugs will pass through membranes and enter cells. Explain why these strategies make sense.

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    Methyl groups are highly non-polar and are, therefore, repelled by aqueous solutions. The interior of biological membranes are also highly non-polar, being made up of hydrocarbon chains from the phospholipids that make up the membranes. Hydrocarbon ...