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Parasitic life cycles in relation to human infection

Using the life cycle, environmental factors and risk factors, what interventions will help prevent human infection with the following parasites: Echinococcus granulosus, Toxoplasma gondii, and Trichinella spiralis?

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Echinococcus granulosus

Life cycle:

- Echinococcus granulosus is a parasite that flourishes primarily in canids (the definitive host), such as dogs, wolves and foxes. Within canids, the particular location of E. granulosus infection is the small intestine.
- Adult E. granulosus tapeworms produce eggs which are transported to the environment via the infected canid's feces. From this point, it is possible that E. granulosus can parasitize intermediate hosts (such as livestock and humans) that come in contact with the fecal matter.
- The organs of host livestock that are ingested by canids complete the life cycle of E. granulosus
- within intermediate hosts E. granulosus may cause hydatid disease

Environmental and Risk factors

- coexistence with dogs has been found to increase risk of hydatidosis significantly. Additionally, the number of dogs present in a household/farm and the number of years they have been kept all increase risk of E. granulosus induced hydatid disease
- the restrictions placed on the ...

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