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1. Several ions are responsible for the resting membrane potential. Describe the forces that determine resting membrane potential.
2. How are graded potentials created, and how are they different from action potentials?
3. Discuss the ion channels that are involved in the generation of an action potential.
4. Describe how an action potential, originating at the axon hillock, is propagated along myelinated and nonmyelinated axons.
5. Describe how EPSPs and IPSPs are generated.

Textbooks I am using:

Human Anatomy & Physiology Lab Manual
Elaine N. Marieb & Susan J. Mitchell
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Principles of Human Physiology
Cindy L. Stanfield

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Forces Determining the Resting Membrane Potential:

The membrane potential that is held by the cell during rest is called resting membrane potential. This phase of the cell gives the indication of the non-gated ion channels that are located in the membrane of the cell. The resting membrane potential is also termed as the relatively static membrane potential that takes place in the quiescent cells. This process is the key driving force in the transfer of the salts and water across the membranes. It is also imperative to note that sodium ions and potassium ions are known to determine the resting membrane potential. The forces that determine this cell process are the mechanisms of the electric driving forces that equalize the chemical driving forces in the state that is called equilibrium potential (Generation Of, 2004).

Difference between Graded Potential and Action Potential:

The graded potential arises mainly from the dendrites and the cell bodies. The graded potential is created when there is a temporary rise and fall in the membrane potential by the action of the postsynaptic potential. This causes the channels of the sodium ions to be ...

Solution Summary

EPSPs and IPSPs for several ions are examined. The graded potentials created and how they are different from action potentials are determined.