# Genetic frequency

1. In ladybugs, wings with 4 spots are recessive to those with 2. Assume 11% of the ladybugs have 4 spot wings. If the mutation rate of 2 spot to 4 spot alleles is 0.047, what percentage of the next generation will be heterozygous?

2. You look at two populations of moose, one from Canada, and one from Newfoundland, an island east of the North American continent. Canadian moose have a dominant allele for antler size with a frequency of 0.34. Newfie moose have a frequency of 0.72 for the same allele. Assuming that 1 percent of the moose migrates from Canada to Newfoundland (an amazing dispersal rate for a terrestrial macrovertebrate across an oceanic body of water), what would be the allele frequency after 2 generations?

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#### Solution Preview

1. Let's start with the information we have been given. 4 spots is recessive to 2 spots.

T= 2 spots

t= 4 spots

11% of the population is 4 spots (tt). That means that the allelic frequency is the square root of 11% = 33%.

According to Hardy-Weinberg allele frequency is given as

p+q= 1

1= (p)squared + 2pq + (q)squared

p= 33%

q= 67%

If the mutation rate of q->p= 0.047 that means that the ...

#### Solution Summary

Calculations and explanations of the two population genetics questions presented.

Genetic variation and disease

1 Define the term "genetic variation."

If a gene or locus has two alleles (A and a) in a population, what are all the possible genotypes?

If the frequency of (A) allele = p, and the frequency of (a) allele is q, what is the frequency of all possible genotypes in this population?

2 What is the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?

In a population, a locus A has two alleles (A) and (a). The frequency f of (A) is f (A) = 0.6; what is the f (a)?

Using these frequencies, calculate the frequencies of all possible genotypes in a population in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.

3 In a population (Z), the frequencies of genotypes of a two allele locus (B and b) are f(BB) = 0.3, f(bb) = 0.6, f (Bb) = 0.1. Calculate the frequencies of both alleles.

Using the allele frequencies calculated in a., calculate the frequencies of all possible genotypes at this locus in a population after one generation of random mating.

Is the population (Z) in part a above in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium? The population size is 1000.

4 Describe how you would use the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium to calculate genotype frequencies of a locus with three alleles.

If the f(D) of an X-linked gene in a population = 0.8, what is the f(d) of the other allele at this locus?

What is the frequency of females' homozygous for d allele (XdXd)?

What is the frequency of males' hemizygous for the d allele (XdY)?

5 Explain why more males present with X-linked recessive diseases. Show your reasoning.

Why must the five assumptions/criteria apply to a population before we can say it is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?

Take any one of these assumptions and explain in detail how it could disrupt the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for a particular gene locus.

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