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Nature versus Nurture and the Creation of Proteins

Dear OTA,

Can you please explain the age old "Nature vs. Nurture theory?

How do we get from the 4 letter code (DNA) to the 20 letter code (proteins)?

Any Insight most welcome!

Best regards,

Future "someone" (hopefully)

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Solution Preview

Ah, the old Nature versus Nurture. First of all, there is no right answer here. Both ideas are wide-spread and tested and there is evidence to support them both. Also, which one applies depends upon what you are talking about.
Nature has to deal with things that come naturally to an organism. For example, bird migration. Mommy and daddy birds do not teach their young how to make it to the Bahamas for the winter. There is no training. They just know. Granted there is some discussion about young following their parents on the first trip, all the while memorizing landmarks along the way. Then the next year, when they have to make the journey by themselves, they use these landmarks as the guide. Bottom line is that there is no training or environmental influence on a bird's ability to migrate. They just do it. This is a pure case of nature.
Nurture on the other hand has to with one's upbringing. A ...

Solution Summary

This answer describes the difference between nature and nurture and also describes how DNA codes for particular proteins and the amino acids that make them up.