A. When mating/crossing a white pure-breeding elephant, with a black pure-breeding elephant, Jen expected offspring that were entirely white. Why?
B. Explain by showing genotypes of parents and progeny.
C. If, instead, the progeny were gray, give a possible explanation.
D. If, instead, Jen mated two heterozygous white elephants, what would be the expected phenotypes if this trait followed basic Mandelian genetics? Explain your answer.
E. If the phenotypes were in a 1:2:1 phenotypic ratio of white:gray:black, give a possible explanation for this result.
What explanation would be given if the progeny from such a cross in c. give all white elephants.
2. For each of the following, give a brief description:
C. sex-limited trait
D. multiple alleles
A. Why would you suspect that a trait is X-linked?
B. Why would you suspect that a trait is Y-linked?
C. Draw a Punnett square to show how a daughter could inherit red/green color blindness.
4. A person with blood type B (whose parents were types O and AB respectively) mates with a person with type AB.
A. What are the expected blood types (phenotypes) and their proportions in their children?
B. What are the expected genotypes at this locus and their proportions in their children?
C. Pretend that instead of being codominant, A, B, and O were sequentially dominant, with A dominant over B and B dominant over O. What would the phenotypes and their proportions be in children from such a mating?
A. Describe in detail what is meant by a quantitative trait? Give an example and include in your answer how it differs from a "Mendelian trait."
B. What is meant by the term "heritability"?
C. Sketch the variation of leaf size you might see in trees in a forest. Assume that leaf size is a quantitative trait.© BrainMass Inc. brainmass.com October 16, 2018, 11:11 pm ad1c9bdddf
Phenotypic expression, blood group of humans etc in any generation is guided by mendelian principle of inheritance. Similarly the inheritance pattern can be shown with the help of punnett square.
Genetics (DNA, Mutations, Cell Division, Protein Synthesis): Punnet squares, mendelian genetics, blood types, and mitosis.
Part 1: Genetics Problem- Human Blood Types
Mendel is the father of modern genetics, but there are some genetic characteristics that cannot be explained by simple Mendelian genetics. Such is the case with the human blood types in which there are 3 alleles for the same gene, A B, and o. A parent can pass allele A, B, or o to the offspring based on the parent's genotype.
From these 3 alleles, there are 4 blood types (phenotypes): A, B, AB, and O, and there are six genotypes: AA, Ao, BB, Bo, AB, or oo. This is an example of codominance in which both A and B alleles are codominant to each other.
Blood types can be used in forensics to determine if blood is from the victim or criminal. Blood types can be used to determine parental source in situation where the father is unknown; however, blood types can only eliminate certain blood types. DNA fingerprinting is a better method that is used often in criminal and parental determination cases.
Punnett squares such as the one shown above are used to determine the probabilities (percentages) for genotypes of offspring given specific genotypes for the parents.
A) In the example above, the Punnett Square represents a cross (mating) between a male (on the left side) with blood type AB, and a female, (top of square), with blood type A, genotype Ao.
Answer the following for the cross represented above.
1) What are the possible blood types for the offspring?
2) What are the ratios or percentages for each possible blood type from this cross?
3) What blood type is not possible from this cross?
B) Fill out two Punnett squares for a cross between a male with blood type B and a female with blood type AB. (Note that we do not know if the father is genotype BB or Bo from the information given. Thus there are two solutions to the possible cross.)
Set up two Punnett squares and answer the following questions about them.
1) What are the possible blood types for the cross between the type B (BB or Bo?) male and AB female?
2) What are the percentages (%) or probabilities for each blood type in the offspring?
3) What blood type(s) would not be possible in a cross between these two parents?
Hint: There are two answers for questions 1 & 2 above and only one for 3.
Turn in the Punnett Squares and your answers to the questions.
Part 2 : Cell division, mutations and genetic variability.
Eukaryotic cells can divide by mitosis or meiosis. In humans, mitosis produces new cells for growth and repair. And, meiosis produces sex cells (gametes), called sperm and eggs. Changes or mutations in genes in sex cells can be inherited by human offspring. Genetic variation in a population of organisms is good; however, sometimes mutations can be harmful or cause genetic disorders.
Briefly, answer the following questions:
How do meiosis and sexual reproduction (fertilization) produce offspring that differ genetically from the parents?
Describe one example of a human disorder that is inherited and also describe the specific inheritance pattern. For this example, pick disorders that result from mutations in DNA or chromosome number rather than examples such as a genetic tendency for a disorder such as cancer.View Full Posting Details