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Scientific Evidence for Human Evolution

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See attached file for full problem description.

Question 1. Simplified time chart of primate evolution

a) Refer to the chart above and name the two most primitive primate lines. (No need to explain, just refer to the chart above in your answer).

b) Between 15 and 25 million years ago (mya) a major differentiation occurred in primate evolution. What was this and what did it give rise to? (4 lines is sufficient here).

Question 2. Study the hominid skulls shown below.

a) Describe two changes to the skull that have occurred in the evolution of modern humans.

b) For each change, suggest one reason why it has occurred.

c) Discuss the importance of diet in the evolution of the brain.

d) For any two of the hominid species listen below, give one significant cultural or biological development that occurred during that species' time span and describe the evolutionary significance the development gave to that species.
i. Australopithecus anamensis
ii. Homo habilis
iii. Homo erectus
iv. Homo neanderthalensis

Question 3. The greatest increase in cultural evolution began with the Neanderethals.

a) Describe the significance for hominid cultural evolution of:
i. tools and pollen from a range of flowering plants found with Neanderthal skeletons
ii. Neanderthal skeletons found with severe skeletal injuries that had healed before death. (Write about 5 lines here)

b) Choose two of the following developments. For each development, describe two ways in which it contributed to the cultural evolution of hominids:
i. cooperative hunting
ii. domestication of plants and animals
iii. development of tools
iv. creating shelters
v. control of fire.

Question 4.

a) In the table below write the name of the hominid species which is associated with the development of each tool culture.
Hominids to choose from (there are more than are required): Homo sapiens; Australopithecus africanus; Homo erectus; Homo neanderthalensis; Homo habilis; Australopithecus anamensis.
Tool cultures: Mousterian, Oldowan, Acheulian, Upper Palaeolithic

b) Describe three ways that the development of these tools contributed to the cultural evolution of hominids.

Question 5. Great developments in tool use by Homo spp. occurred in Europe during the upper Palaeolithic.

Explain any link between environmental change and cultural evolution during this time. (Write at least 6 lines here).

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Interpret scientific evidence for human evolution

Note: Please do not use other sources for your answer (Eg: Wikipedia) and please answer in full (Not simplified sentences), I need to be able to understand what you are explaining.

Question 1.

Simplified time chart of primate evolution

a) Refer to the chart above and name the two most primitive primate lines. (No need to explain, just refer to the chart above in your answer).

The answer that the teacher is looking for in this question is lemurs/lorises and tarsiers.

But keep in mind that modern prosimians (lemurs, lorises, and tarsiers) are not primitive in the sense that they are exactly like the prosimians found 45 million years ago. Rather, the prosimian line split from the lineage leading to modern humans earlier than the split between monkeys and humans or apes and humans.

b) Between 15 and 25 million years ago (mya) a major differentiation occurred in primate evolution. What was this and what did it give rise to? (4 lines is sufficient here).

Between 15 and 25 million years ago, apes had already appeared. The differentiation that occurred at this time was a split between the lesser and the greater apes. Today, the lesser apes are the gibbons, and the great apes are orangutans, chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and humans.

Question 2.

Study the hominid skulls shown below.

a) Describe two changes to the skull that have occurred in the evolution of modern humans.

i. Change 1: The brain case got larger (both in absolute size and relative to body size) and rounder.
ii. Change 2: The jaws got smaller and more delicate.

b) For each change, suggest one reason why it has occurred.

i. Change 1 reason: There was increased selection for ...

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Identify trends in human biological or cultural evolution.

(See attached file for full problem description, including diagrams.)

Interpret scientific evidence for human evolution. Identify trends in human biological or cultural evolution.

Question 1.

The diagram below shows a hominid family tree based on DNA similarities. Use this diagram to answer question a.
a) Name the hominid group that is most closely related to humans.
b) Describe how DNA evidence is used to determine evolutionary relationships. (Write at least 4 lines).
c) What does this diagram suggest about the evolutionary relationship between modern humans and Neanderthals? (Write at least 4 lines). The following diagram shows the genetic relationship between modern humans and Neanderthals, based on this DNA analysis.

Question 2.

Study the hominid skulls shown below.
a) Describe two changes to the skull that have occurred in the evolution of modern humans. (Write at least two lines each).
b) For each change, suggest one reason why it has occurred. (Write at least three lines each).
c) Discuss the importance of diet in the evolution of the brain. (Write at least six lines).

Question 3.

In the table below, List A identifies six hominid species while List B contains six statements relating to those species.

List A
1. Australopithecus afarensis
2. Australopithecus africanus
3. Paranthropus robustus
4. Homo habilis
5. Homo erectus
6. Homo neanderthalensis
List B
A. This species had a brain size of about 450 cc, with massive molars and a large jaw.
B. This species almost certainly used fire and was the first to migrate out of Africa.
C. The first fossilized footprints to show evidence of bipedalism were made by this species.
D. This species was extremely intelligent and able to adapt to living in a wide range of climates.
E. A lightly built scavenger living in open woodland and Savannah of Southern African around 3-2mya.
F. Nicknamed "Handy Man". this is the oldest species known to use stone tools.

In the appropriate space below write the letter of the statement from List B that matches the species in List A.

Question 4.

The diagram below shows a commonly accepted model for human evolution. After studying the diagram answer the questions.
a) Complete the following table with the appropriate letter from the time chat diagram.

Name of hominid Letter from diagram
Homo sapiens
Paranthropus robustus
Homo neanderthalensis
Australopithecus africanus
Homo habilis
Australopithecus anamensis
Homo heidelbergensis
Australopithecus boisei

b) For any two of the hominid species listen below, give one significant cultural or biological development that occurred during that species' time span and describe the evolutionary significance the development gave to that species. (Write at least five lines each).

i. Australopithecus anamensis
ii. Homo habilis
iii. Homo erectus
iv. Homo neanderthalensis

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