The evolution of antibiotic resistance in bacterial populations is a direct consequence of natural selection applied by widespread use of antibiotic drugs. When a new antibiotic is first introduced, it kills the vast majority of bacteria exposed to it. The surviving bacterial cells, however, may include individuals whose genomes happen to include a mutant gene that confers resistance. As Darwin understood, individuals carrying the resistance gene will leave behind a disproportionately large share of offspring, which inherit the gene. If the environment consistently contains an antibiotic, bacteria carrying the resistance gene will eventually come to predominate. Because bacteria reproduce so rapidly and have comparatively high rates of mutation, evolutionary change leading to resistant populations is often rapid.
We have accelerated the pace of the evolution of antibiotic resistance by introducing massive quantities of antibiotics into the bacteria's environment. Each year, U.S. physicians prescribe more than 100 million courses of antibiotics; the Centers for Disease Control estimate that about half of these prescriptions are unnecessary. An additional 20 million pounds of antibiotics are fed to farm animals annually. The use of antibacterial soaps and cleansers has become routine in many households. As a result of this massive alteration of the bacterial environment, resistant bacteria are now found not only in hospitals and the bodies of sick people but are also widespread in our food supply and in the environment. Our heavy use (many would say overuse) of antibiotics means that susceptible bacteria are under constant attack and that resistant strains have little competition. In our fight against disease, we rashly overlooked some basic principles of evolutionary biology and are now paying a heavy price.
How do you think the further evolution of antibiotic resistance can or cannot be prevented.© BrainMass Inc. brainmass.com October 16, 2018, 7:43 pm ad1c9bdddf
Antibiotics are substances that kill or interfere with the growth of microorganisms, especially bacteria. Not all microorganisms are susceptible to all antibiotics. Microorganisms which are not killed or inhibited by an antibiotic are called "antibiotic resistant". They continue to grow and multiply in the presence of that antibiotic. Some bacteria are naturally resistant; new resistances also arise spontaneously by chance mutations and these resistant strains then multiply. Once resistance has been established, it can evolve rapidly because bacteria multiply quickly. Proliferation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria ...
This solution answers the frequently asked question of evolutionary aspect of antibiotic resistance among microorganisms. It provides information on whether or not the further evolution of antibiotics can be prevented in 375 words.
Defendant's Genes Do Not Excuse Criminal Behavior
Today, scientific advances are being made at an astounding rate, and nowhere is this more evident than in our understanding of the biology of heredity. Using DNA as a starting point, do you believe there are limits to the knowledge people should acquire? Defend your answer.
Because genetics is important to so many aspects of human behavior, defense attorneys might consider using a defendant's genetic constitution as a strategy to excuse criminal behavior. Take one of the two sides listed below:
1. Present an argument about why a defendant's genes should be considered as a factor in the criminal behavior.
2. Present an argument about why a defendant's genes do not excuse criminal behavior.