Answer all three of the questions below. You must show all of your work .Please do this assignment as a Word document with SPSS output pasted where appropriate.
Problem 1: Operationalizing variables can be a challenge. One measure of a country's human rights record is a measure known as the Political Terror Scale. This variable was developed by Mark Gibney at UNC-Asheville, and is coded for individual states according to the following criteria:
Countries receive a score of 1 if people are not imprisoned for their views, and torture and political murder are extremely rare.
Countries receive a score of 2 if there is some political imprisonment for nonviolent political activity, and torture and political murder are rare.
Countries receive a score of 3 if there is extensive political imprisonment, and torture and political murder are common.
Countries receive a score of 4 if Level 3 practices are extended to larger numbers of the population.
Countries receive a score of 5 if Level 3 practices are extended to the whole population.
To obtain these data, scholars used both Amnesty International Country Reports as well as Annual Reports from the US State Department. An astute observer might suggest that the use of State Department data may not be very reliable, because the US under reports abuses in countries it likes and over reports them in countries it does not. Is this the case? Using the human rights data for Assignment 4 (global_pts_comparison.sav), generate a correlation coefficient between the two measures (pts05am and pts05us). Using these findings, what can we preliminarily say about whether the State Department data is biased?
Problem 2: Whether and to what extent IMF lending programs have negative effects on the economies of borrowing states is a contentious issue. In the early days of research in this topic, scholars compared economic outcomes from countries under IMF programs to those from countries not under IMF programs. For our purposes, let us consider the effects of Fund lending programs on foreign direct investment. Using the Latin America capital flows data for Assignment 4 (lat_am_cap_flows_example_MR.sav), compute a t-test on foreign direct investment as a percentage of GNP using the dichotomous independent variable selected, which indicates whether or not countries are under an IMF program in that year. Using these findings, what can we say here? Is it the case that IMF programs attract foreign direct investment or deter it?
Problem 3: A recurring example in class has been the effects of trade on levels of government expenditure. Using the trade and government expenditure dataset for Assignment 4 (trade_and_gov_expend_example2.sav), compute a simple bivariate regression of trade on government expenditure and interpret the results. What do these tell us more broadly about this relationship? How do we know we're right? If Bangladesh had a level of trade in this year of 31.6% of GDP, what would be its predicted level of government expenditure?
The solution provides step by step method for the calculation of correlation in SPSS . Formula for the calculation and Interpretations of the results are also included.