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    The Procedure to Test the Efficacy of Drugs

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    Two drugs (A,B) are compared for the medical treatment of duodenal ulcer. For this purpose, patients are carefully matched on age, sex, and clinical condition. The treatment results based on 200 matched pairs show that for 89 matched pairs both treatments are effective; for 90 matched pairs both treatments are ineffective; for 5 matched pairs drug A is effective, whereas drug B is ineffective; for 16 matched pairs drug B is effective, whereas drug A is ineffective.

    a. What test procedure can be used to assess the values?
    b. How many concordant pairs are there?
    c. How many discordant pairs are?
    d. Perform the test in (a) and report a p-value.

    Please show all work

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    Solution Preview

    See attached file.Hello,
    To help you understand how to answer this question, I will refer you to this book:
    Fundamentals of Biostatistics, Volume 1 (by Bernard A. Roser)
    A lot of this book is available for free viewing on Google Books - please find the book on there to look up the pages and formulas that I use for answering this question. Everything I will direct you to comes from the freely-viewed parts of the book on Google Books. In fact, this question that you're asking is a question from the book - it is the first question on page 448.
    Now, to help you answer the question:
    First, recognize that you can set up a 2x2 contingency table with matched pairs as the sampling unit (see explanation and example on page 409). On the top you can place the "outcome for drug A patient", and on the side you can place the "outcome for drug B patient."
    Here is the contingency table for this problem:
    Outcome ...

    Solution Summary

    This solution helps discuss the test procedure that can be used to test the efficacy of drugs.