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# Interpreting the Null hypothesis significance test (NHST)

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A researcher compares men's and women's attitudes toward "road rage." Specifically, college students are asked to read a brief scenario describing a road rage incident in which a driver of a car attempts to scare a bicycle rider who accidentally cut across his path. The driver aims his car at the bicyclist and the bicycle rider, in an attempt to get out of the way, falls and gets hurt. Men and women rate how much they are disturbed by the driver's reaction using a 10-point scale (1 = not disturbed at all, 10 = very disturbed). The mean for men was 7.4 and the mean rating for women was 8.6. A t-test for independent groups indicated the following result: t(28) = 2.76, p = .01. Answer the following questions about the results of this hypothetical experiment.

1. Were the results statistically significant?

2. How many men and women were there in this study (assuming equal numbers in each condition)?

3. What does the p value tell you in addition to the fact that the results may be considered statistically significant?

4. Is a Type II error possible in this study?

5. What should the researcher report along with the results of the t-test?

https://brainmass.com/statistics/hypothesis-testing/interpreting-the-null-hypothesis-significance-test-nhst-351256

#### Solution Preview

1. Were the results statistically significant? Yes (p < .05)

2. How many men and women were there in this study (assuming equal numbers in each condition)? df (28)= N - 2 so N= 30 total (15 men and 15 woman)

3. What does the p value tell you in addition to the fact that the results may be considered statistically significant? What the level of confidence is (99%)

4. Is a Type II error possible in this study? No, we rejected the null so we can only make a Type I error.

5. What should the researcher report along with ...

#### Solution Summary

Interpreting the Null hypothesis significance test, especially using everyday language can be hard. This answer guides you through how to read and interpret a finding (like from an article) and gives you an example of practical significance (versus statistical significance).

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## Exploring Inferential Statistics and Their Discontents

This is a two part assignment that will be submitted within one document.

Part I

Part I checks your understanding of key concepts from Jackson and Trochim, Donnelly, and Arora.

1.
2. What are degrees of freedom? How are the calculated?
3. What do inferential statistics allow you to infer?
4. What is the General Linear Model (GLM)? Why does it matter?
5. Compare and contrast parametric and nonparametric statistics. Why and in what types of cases would you use one over the other?
6. Why is it important to pay attention to the assumptions of the statistical test? What are your options if your dependent variable scores are not normally distributed?

Part II

Part II introduces you to a debate in the field of education between those who support Null Hypothesis Significance Testing (NHST) and those who argue that NHST is poorly suited to most of the questions educators are interested in. Jackson (2012) and Trochim, Donnelly, and Arora (2016) pretty much follow this model. Northcentral follows it. But, as the authors of the readings for Part II argue, using statistical analyses based on this model may yield very misleading results. You may or may not propose a study that uses alternative models of data analysis and presentation of findings (e.g., confidence intervals and effect sizes) or supplements NHST with another model. In any case, by learning about alternatives to NHST, you will better understand it and the culture of the field of education.

1. What does p = .05 mean? What are some misconceptions about the meaning of p =.05? Why are they wrong? Should all research adhere to the p = .05 standard for significance? Why or why not?
2. Compare and contrast the concepts of effect size and statistical significance.
3. What is the difference between a statistically significant result and a clinically or "real world" significant result? Give examples of both.
4. What is NHST? Describe the assumptions of the model.
5. Describe and explain three criticisms of NHST.
6. Describe and explain two alternatives to NHST. What do their proponents consider to be their advantages?

References: At least five (5) resources. In addition to these specified resources, other appropriate scholarly resources, including older articles, may be included.

Length: 5- 7 pages

Use current APA standards.

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