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Confounding: Causal Inferences

Describe how individual matching, stratification, group matching and adjustment control confounding? The review questions included the answers, however the textbook does not do a great job in explaining how the above approaches control confounding. Thank you...

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When you are conducting an experiment, you want both groups to be well balanced to reduce confounds. In other words, you want both groups to contain individuals who have similar characteristics, so that one group does not have an unfair advantage over the other. For example, if you are trying to see if playing music while studying increases grades, you do not want one group to have individuals with high IQs and the other to have people with lower IQs. That will give one group and unfair advantage, which will confound the results. Unfortunately, randomly assigning people to groups does not always guarantee that there will be a mix of people with varying IQs in each ...

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Describe how individual matching, stratification, group matching and adjustment control confounding? The review questions included the answers, however the textbook does not do a great job in explaining how the above approaches control confounding.

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