What causes led to the Reformation of the 16th Century? What were the effects of the Reformation? (at least 250 words with credible reference)
This question is both very simple and very difficult.
The answer depends on which school of thought you belong to.
For the Protestant point of view:
The Reformation was a justified reaction to the moral and intellectual decay of the papacy. The creation of the doctrine of "indulgences" (inherently part of the Purgatory doctrine), the amount of money local rulers needed to send to Rome, the problems caused by bishops appealing to Rome over the heads of the local synod, the state and the local church, and finally, the schism of Avignon, where the world saw three popes at the same time, all of which were deposed by the Council of Constance. The clergy were seen as ignorant and corrupt, while modern notions of state sovereignty were bringing rulers to seek out ways to eliminate Roman interference in their country's social life.
On the other hand, the Catholic view is that the reformation was an overreaction among northern princes and rulers to take church revenues and monastic properties for themselves. This is not to ...
What causes led to the reformation of the 16th century is determined. The effects of the reformation are determined.