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    Day of Yahweh, Justice and Sacrifice Word Study

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    Based upon the following three words from the Old Testament book of Amos 5:18, 24, 25 please address the following:
    (1) Day of Yahweh
    (2) Justice
    (3) Sacrifice

    What are the parts of speech for each word?

    What is type of verb root is each word?

    How is each word translated in other versions of the Bible? How are these other translations such as NIV, NRSV or NASB, useful in understanding the meaning(s) of these words?

    How are the words used in other OT passages? What important insights do these other translation/usages have for each of these words.

    How do the new insights into the meaning(s) of the words better explain them and what implication do these words have on the local church, and/or society-at-large.

    Please provide a list of resources used.

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    "Day of Yahweh." This almost always refers to the day of judgment. The issue was that, as Judah became more corrupt, the evil were prospering and the good, suffering. How can this be made right? Ultimately, by the coming Judgment. "Corrupt" here has a very specific meaning: it refers to the obsession with commerce, the slow blurring of the lines between Yahweh and Baal (etc), and, worst of all, the perfunctory form of worship and sacrifice that had turned pagan. That is, it was performed so as to ensure prosperity for the coming year, rather than as thanks to God. It became magic, not praise.

    The Hebrew transliterated is ywm yhwh. This is not all that controversial, since it's used the same way all over the OT. It is about judgment and the end of all things: all that is unbalanced will be made balanced and right. Remember: this is not a good thing for most. Israel/Judah will suffer as a result of this "day."

    It is found in an almost identical sense in Isaiah 13, Ezekiel 13, Joel 1 (really, throughout), and Malachi 3, among other places. Some add the term 'brt, or "wrath" or use the phrase ywm hrwn 'pw, or the "day of His Burning Anger." It's all the same thing. While the Day is a noun, it implies an action. It's verb form is unimportant since we, as human beings, have nothing to do with it. It is God's action, not ours. It is the final judgment, where justice is made manifest in an infallible and unmistakable way (Barstad, 1984 and Smith, 1901).

    For different translations, use this software: http://www.biblestudytools.com/amos/5-18.html
    The Douay-Rheims uses the same language, as does the NIV, RSV, Wycliffe, and the New English. They all use "Day of the Lord." Of course, Yahweh is implied. In the New Testament, it is shortened to just "the Day." But the meaning is the same. Real Israel will be removed from the false.

    In the Lexicon, take a look at page 70. To execute justice ultimately is God's perogative. Humans can imitate it. Also the very end of 90 to the beginning of 91. Here, the angry God is passing judgment/sentence on Israel in justice. Also 303, Yahweh as the Divine Judge.

    Justice: Amos is the standard here, since he uses the term consistently and in great detail. It is used in a technical sense, and is also used in a similar way throughout the prophetic books. It refers to four specific things: sale (of Israelites) into debt slavery, the manipulation of the courts against the interests of the poor, the humiliation and possibly violation of poor and hence powerless women, and finally, the use of debtors as bond servants.
    Mishpat is the Hebrew word most commonly translated as "justice." It's used the same way in Isaiah 33:5 and Psalm 97. It is translated "justice" ...

    Solution Summary

    The Book of Amos is used to analyse three words (Day of Yahweh, Justice, and Sacrifice), their use and meaning in the Old Testament.