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whether bystanders help in emergencies

What are some of the factors that determine whether bystanders help in emergencies? How can you increase the likelihood of people being helpful to others in need?

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As you address some of the factors that determine whether bystanders help in emergencies and how can you increase the likelihood of people being helpful to others in need, one article offers shocking implications. I have attached it as well since it won't allow me to cut and paste from it:

Gaertner, S. L. (1975). THE ROLE OF RACIAL ATTITUDES IN HELPING BEHAVIOR. Journal Of Social Psychology, 97(1), 95.

The author shockingly posits that the victim's race is a factor that affects the probability that a bystander will help during an emergency. The article suggests that "attitudes toward the victim may affect helping behavior by influencing the ...

Solution Summary

This solution examines factors that determine whether bystanders help in emergencies and how can you increase the likelihood of people being helpful to others in need. References are also provided to justify the assertions.

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