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Psychology and the Counselling Movement

I am preparing for a midterm exam covering the history of the counselling movement and basic issues in counselling. In preparation for the exam, can you provide with the answers for the following multiple-choice questions?

1. The confusion about the difference in meaning between the term "counselling" and "psychotherapy" stems from:

a. ignorance of the field
b. ignorance of the English language
c. genuine knowledge and practical experience
d. lack of practical experience

2. The reason it is important to be able to distinguish between the terms "counselling" and "psychotherapy" is that
a. people have to know how much they should pay for treatment
b. counselling and psychotherapy are two different fields with opposite purposes and no overlap
c. people face a variety of problems and there are a variety of specialized treatments
d. all words need precise definition

3. The counselling profession is an outgrowth of
a. a single counselling tradition going back to Plato
b. a Chinese innovation known as the "talking cure"
c. the Bible
d. a combination of movements and developments in Europe and the U.S.

4. Modern laboratory psychology is most closely connected with the work of
a. John Dewey
b. Wilhelm Wundt
c. Sigmund Freud
d. Car Rogers

5. The major criticism that the behaviorists leveled at the introspectionists
a. were not dealing with something observable and measurable
b. were not good scientists
c. believed in the "soul"
d. administered standardized tests

6. The early treatment of the mentally ill was in general
a. decent and humane
b. caring, even if somewhat rough physically
c. overly protective
d. poor physically and psychologically

7. Jean Charcot and Pierre Janet explored the causes and treatment of hysteria through the uase of
a. psychoanalysis
b. dreams
c. hypnosis
d. introspection

8. The man who singularly responsible for generating public interest in improved mental health in the U.S. was
a. Clifford Beers
b. Wilheim Windt
c. B. f. Skinner
d. C. Jung

9. A development that added what appeared to be a scientific side to the counselling movement was
a. the combination of behavioral laboratory psychology and empirical and quantitative testing
b. humanistic psychology
c. the recognition of the need for improved conditions for the mentally ill
d. vocational guidance movement

10. Counselling as a movement is closely tied to
a. the spirit of European academism
b. the American ideal of individualism and humanism
d. British empiricism
d. the development of the American college and university system

11. That there is real no difference between "counselling" and "psychotherapy" is the opinion of
a. all professionals in the field
b. no professionals in thefield
c. most people outside the field, but very few inside the profession
d. some inside the field and some outside

12. The popular distinction between counselling and psychotherapy holds that
a. counselling deals with the adequately functioning individual and psychotherapy with the neurotic or pathological
b. counselling takes place in schools, while psychotherapy takes place in an office
c. in counselling, the client sits, while in psychotherapy he or she lies down
d. in counselling, the counselor does most of the talking, while in psychotherapy the client does most of it

14. A practical difference between counselling and psychotherapy which results from progressive education and the Rogerian movement is that
a. counselling is concerned with the inner, dynamic side of consciousness, while psychotherapy is more concerned with the libido
b. counsellors get closer to their clients than do psychotherapists
c. counselling is concerned with the here-and-now and relating to the client on an equal footing, while psychotherapy is concerned with underlying problems from the past
d. psychotherapists charge more than counsellors

15. In general, the theoretical difference between counselling and psychotherapy is
a. non-existent
b. counselling is oriented toward the total person and tends to view him or her as unique and essentially worthwhile, while psychotherapy is built around a particular personality theory, psychopathology model, and techniques of treatment
c. psychotherapy is limited to the Freudian model, while counselling encompasses all theories
d. counselling rejects all theory, while psychotherapy may be based on a number of theories

16. Questions in the counselling field have been dealt with most successfully by
a. taking a poll of all experimenters dealing with the question
b. appointed a committee to research the problem
c. theoretical argument
d. a combination of experimental research, theoretical argument, and clinical case studies

17. The main limitation of the case study approach to counselling problems is
a. it takes too long
b. it is too painful to the clients
c. one may draw conclusions which are limited to the particular studies and don't have application to other cases
d. it is too subjective

18. The philosophical question, To what in life does man strive? falls into the category
a. axiology
b. epistemology
c. ethics
d. ontology

19. The counselling approach rejects the strictures of any orthodox psychopathology because
a. it is more concerned with environmental influences
b. it wants to "free" the client from any rigidly-held opinions
c. it deals with the whole person, including environmental as well as intrapsychic influences
d. all pathological models restrict growth

20. The "anti-illness" movement was initiated by
a. a few radical theorists within the ranks of psychiatry and psychology
b. political reformers in New York
c. labor unions interested in increased health benefits
d. people active in the counselling movement

21. The "anti-illness" movement attacked
a. the so-called scientific model of psychopathology because it restricted the view of human nature
b. dirty conditions in the slums c. politicians who didn't care about improved mental health conditions
d. Freudian psychoanalysts alone

22. The counselling profession was in part influenced by Freudian psychoanalysis to adopt
a. hypnosis as its major means of treatment
b. dream analysis
c. the medical model as a way of looking at human nature and psychological problems
d. the "talking cure"

23. The medical model
a. assumes that mental events have a physical basis
b. assumes that the symptoms which a patient manifests are a sign of an underlying pathological condition
c. encourages neurosurgery as the cure for mental illness
d. is presently the most influential trend in counselling

24. R. D. Lang, the noted British psychiatrist, argued that the psychotherapist's reliance on technical language
a. helped raise psychiatry to its present highly scientific level
b. either refers to man in isolation from others and from the world or falsely attributes to man aspects of personality
c. provides a sophisticated basis for classifying mental illness

25. The language used in diagnosing patients
a. is sophisticated and reliable
b. shows that the diagnostician knows the root causes of the patient's illness
c. was developed by the counselling movement
d. is considered by some to split up the patient into parts and make him an abject

26. The assumption of those who hold strictly by the medical model, that psychopathology is analogous to medical pathology,
a. is well-supported by the nature of mental illness, which is as predictable as physical illness
c. is not well-supported, either by the nature or by the predictability of the outcome of mental versus physical illness
d. is not well-supported because of the lack of a suitable vocabulary for the diagnosis of mental illness

27. Many psychotherapists use diagnostic categories despite their demonstrated weaknesses because
a. it creates a protective professional mystique and may give the patient some relief
b. they like long words
c. certified psychotherapists are required to make detailed diagnosis
d. the patient would consider them incompetent if they did not make a diagnosis

28. The relation of counselling profession to diagnosis is
a. harmonious in that diagnosis is a necessary and helpful aspect of the counselling process
b. a relationship of mutual tolerance in which the counselor sees no harm in diagnosis but sees no particular reason to utilize it
c. one of ignorance in that very few counsellors know anything about diagnosis
d. possible one of opposition in that diagnosis categorizes the individual while the counsellor seeks to free her or him from categorization

29. Thomas Szasz emphasizes that mental illness as a concept is
a. rigorously scientific and objective
b. a foolproof basis for categorization
c. presently too overburdened by categories and needs an overhaul
d. open to social and cultural influences and, therefore, subjective

30. The British psychiatrist, R.D. Lang represents the counselling position in that he
a. believes in the conscientious use of technical vocabulary
b. believes that every symptom has an underlying psychopathology
c. is concerned with the total person in all her or his life processes and considers mental illness a social value rather than reality
d. believes in letting the patient do all the talking while he therapist simply listens

31. Lang views the client-therapist relationship as
a. stratified in that the client is a sick person seeking professional help
b. an effort on the part of the therapist and the client to develop the "wholeness" pf being human through their relationship
c. an opportunity for the patient to escape her or his own reference points and subjectivity and learn new and better psychological perspectives
d. distant from each other because it is necessary for the therapist to maintain objectivity

32. The concept of "normality" among psychiatrists and psychologists is ambiguous because
a. it, like the concept of mental illness," is subject to social and cultural perception and judgment
b. it needs further research for clarification's. it is a very recent development
d. it is borrowed philosophy, which has attributed different meanings to the concept at different times

33. Because of the pitfalls of diagnosis, counsellors have been forced
a. to simplify the terminology of mental illness
b. to give up the medial model in favor of the phenomenological approach
c. to derive new psychopathological models
d. to devise new techniques of treatment

34. The phenomenological approach has as its central principle
a. faith in the healing power of the therapist
b. a flexible system of diagnosis
c. a technique of treatment similar to hypnosis
d. the belief that what matters in the therapeutic relationship is the point of view of the patient

35. Among counsellors, acceptance of any one counselling theory is
a. unanimous, or nearly so
b. possibly limited to a few counsellors, as there are well over one hundred counselling theories, approaches, and rationales
c. limited to a large minority, in the case of each theory, since there are less than ten theories
d. likely to remain constant over period of time

36. In general, a counselling theory must
a. explain all possible cases and their outcomes
b. explain only a few cases and predict their outcomes
c. serve as an explanation for both the counsellor and the client
d. serve an explicative function by relating seemingly isolated events, and have a practical function

37. The counsellor's major reason for holding to or abandoning theory is based on
a. how the client responds to interventions derived from the theory *
b. whether or not the client agrees with the theory
c. what the consensus of opinion among counsellors is on that particular theory
d. who developed the theory

38. the backgrounds of people in the profession of counselling
a. are rather homogeneous, as in the field of medicine and law
b. are extremely varied in both training and professional recognition
c. are quite homogenous on the undergraduate level, but varied on the graduate level
d. are mostly minority, lower-class counsellors

39. It is desirable that the counsellor's training be undertaken by
a. a staff of psychiatric residents
b. a variety of knowledgeable clergymen and laymen
c. a variety of professionals and academics
d. a combination of psychiatrists and psychoanalysts

40. As a group, professional psychologists feel counsellors
a. are not qualified by their training for licensure
b. are qualified and should be licensed
c. may be licensed to work in schools, but not in private practice
d. may be qualified for licensure, but shouldn't be licensed because they would take some of the jobs and roles of psychologists

41. Licensing is important to counsellors because
a. social pressures have increased counsellor's need for prestige
b. counsellors are currently not earning enough money, and licensing would increase their income
c. psychologists don't have enough competition to be motivated to do a better job
c. societal pressures have created a need for independence form the psychology profession and a need for counsellors to have control over their own preparation programs

Thanks a lot!

Solution Preview

1. The confusion about the difference in meaning between the term "counselling" and "psychotherapy" stems from:

a. ignorance of the field
b. ignorance of the English language
c. genuine knowledge and practical experience
d. lack of practical experience

2. The reason it is important to be able to distinguish between the terms "counselling" and "psychotherapy" is that
a. people have to know how much they should pay for treatment
b. counselling and psychotherapy are two different fields with opposite purposes and no overlap
c. people face a variety of problems and there are a variety of specialized treatments
d. all words need precise definition

3. The counselling profession is an outgrowth of
a. a single counselling tradition going back to Plato
b. a Chinese innovation known as the "talking cure"
c. the Bible
d. a combination of movements and developments in Europe and the U.S.

4. Modern laboratory psychology is most closely connected with the work of
a. John Dewey
b. Wilhelm Wundt
c. Sigmund Freud
d. Car Rogers

5. The major criticism that the behaviorists leveled at the introspectionists
a. were not dealing with something observable and measurable
b. were not good scientists
c. believed in the "soul"
d. administered standardized tests

6. The early treatment of the mentally ill was in general
a. decent and humane
b. caring, even if somewhat rough physically
c. overly protective
d. poor physically and psychologically

7. Jean Charcot and Pierre Janet explored the causes and treatment of hysteria through the uase of
a. psychoanalysis
b. dreams
c. hypnosis
d. introspection

8. The man who singularly responsible for generating public interest in improved mental health in the U.S. was
a. Clifford Beers
b. Wilheim Windt
c. B. f. Skinner
d. C. Jung

9. A development that added what appeared to be a scientific side to the counselling movement was
a. the combination of behavioral laboratory psychology and empirical and quantitative testing
b. humanistic psychology
c. the recognition of the need for improved conditions for the mentally ill
d. vocational guidance movement

10. Counselling as a movement is closely tied to
a. the spirit of European academism
b. the American ideal of individualism and humanism
d. British empiricism
d. the development of the American college and university system

11. That there is real no difference between "counselling" and "psychotherapy" is the opinion of
a. all professionals in the field
b. no professionals in thefield
c. most people outside the field, but very few inside the profession
d. some inside the field and some outside

12. The popular distinction between counselling and psychotherapy holds that
a. counselling deals with the adequately functioning individual and psychotherapy with the neurotic or pathological
b. counselling takes place in schools, while psychotherapy takes place in an office
c. in counselling, the client sits, while in psychotherapy he or she lies down
d. in counselling, the counselor does most of the talking, while in psychotherapy the client does most of it

14. A practical difference between counselling and psychotherapy which results from progressive education and the Rogerian movement is that
a. counselling is concerned with the inner, dynamic side ...

Solution Summary

This solution provides the answers to a sample midterm exam covering the history of the counselling movement in psychology.

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