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Anatomical features of the neuron

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Describe all the anatomical features of the neuron. What are the structures and functions of each one? Include in your answer the location and difference between voltage-gate and chemically-gated channels.

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https://brainmass.com/psychology/neurons/anatomical-features-neuron-46059

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There are many type of neurons. They vary in size from 4 microns (.004 mm) to 100 microns (.1 mm) in diameter. Their length varies from a fraction of an inch to several feet. For example, the brain and spinal cord are made up of many cells, including neurons and glial cells. Neurons are cells that send and receive electro-chemical signals to and from the brain and nervous system. There are about 100 billion neurons in the brain. There are many more glial cells; they provide support functions for the neurons, and are far more numerous than neurons. Unlike most other cells, neurons cannot regrow after damage (except neurons from the hippocampus). Fortunately, there are about 100 billion neurons in the brain. (http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/anatomy/brain/Neuron.shtml).

STRUCTURE OF THE NEURON

Picture from http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/anatomy/brain/Neuron.shtml

Neurons have protein molecules that serve as 1) pumps; 2) channels; 3) receptors; 4) enzymes and 5) structural elements (http://www.psych.ndsu.nodak.edu/mccourt/Psy460/Neurophysiology%20of%20vision/Neurophysiology%20of%20vision.html).
Structure and function of the Neuron
• Cell Body: life support and information integration structure
o nucleus, ribosomes, rough & smooth endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, lysosomes, microfiliments and microtubuals
o synthesis of proteins (including neurotransmitter)
• Axon: information delivery structure
o axon hillock, axoplasmic transport of material, myelin sheath, terminal arborization, terminal bouton, synaptic vesicles
• Dendrite: information recipient structure
o spiny (excitatory synapses) or nonspinous (typically inhibitory synapses)
o easily outnumber axons (http://www.psych.ndsu.nodak.edu/mccourt/Psy460/Neurophysiology%20of%20vision/Neurophysiology%20of%20vision.html).

Functions
In sum, Neurons are nerve cells that transmit nerve signals to and from the brain at up to 200 mph. The neuron consists of a cell body (or soma) with branching dendrites (signal receivers) and a projection called an axon, which conduct the nerve signal. At the other end of the axon, the axon terminals transmit the electro-chemical signal across a synapse (the gap between the axon terminal and the receiving cell). The word "neuron" was coined by the German scientist Heinrich Wilhelm ...

Solution Summary

Describes all the anatomical features of the neuron. It also discusses the structures and functions of each one, including the location and difference between voltage-gate and chemically-gated channels. Supplemented with one supporting chapter for further exploration.

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