Explore BrainMass
Share

Multiple Choice Questions on Thinking and Intelligence

This content was STOLEN from BrainMass.com - View the original, and get the already-completed solution here!

Please see attached file

1. As she moves quietly around the restaurant where she works as a waitress, Alicia finds herself humming in her head the phrase, "Just whistle while you work?" This is an example of a/an:
a. Proposition
b. prototype
c. auditory image
d. cognitive schema

2. Chris must sit out the next two weeks of basketball games because of a problem with her hamstring muscle. Her eight grade coach tells her to use this off time imagining herself out on the court. He wants Chris to feel her body running down the court, to see herself reaching for the ball and shooting a basket. It is most likely that Chris's coach is:
a. trying to keep her spirits up during the time she won't be able to play.
b. trying to change her perspective and see the game through his eyes.
c. keeping her involved in the game, so she'll stop brooding over her injury.
d. encouraging her to rehearse in this way, so her performance will improve when she's ready to play again.

3. When Mitch was learning to drive, he couldn't imagine how he'd ever remember to steer the wheel, flip on the turn signal, step on the gas pedal, and still manage to keep the car on the road. Now that he has been driving for three years, Mitch's reactions have become so automatic that, when he's driving is/are involved.
a. nonconscious processes
b. convergent thinking
c. subconscious processes
d. divergent thinking

4. Dawn and Erin can't figure out how to fit their clothes, furniture, futons, computers, and a refrigerator into their small dorm room. Just when it seems hopeless, Erin says, "Aha, I've got it!" She begins moving the items around until they fit perfectly. Erin's sudden revelation is most likely due to:
a. clues that triggered nonconscious processing about the room arrangement, followed by conscious awareness of the solution.
b. simplifying the process by imagining a prototype of a dorm room, then making a decision based on that prototype.
c. subconscious processing and automatic routines that Erin has learned so well that she can perform them without thinking.
d. beginning the task in a state of mindlessness, then directing her conscious thinking to the task at hand.

5. Zelda dials her boyfriend's number instead of her mother's, as she intended. Zelda correctly attributes her error to:
a. pre-reflecting reasoning.
b. mindlessness.
c. implicit learning
d. inductive reasoning
6. Scientist make very careful observations. From those observations they draw a conclusion, while remaining open to the fact that there may be several possible correct answers. This leads us to conclude that science depends heavily on reasoning.
a. inductive
b. algorithmic
c. deductive
d. intuitional

7. A production executive, using deductive reasoning as an approach to solving production problems, concludes that there is only one correct solution to every problem. The flaw in his reasoning is that:
a. it allows his managers to find their own answers.
b. clear solutions to manufacturing problems are rare.
c. it doesn't allow for dialectical reasoning.
d. it relies too heavily on what has proved effective in the past.

8. Reflective judgment requires an ability to think critically about everyday problems and be prepared to:
a. stand up for what you believe.
b. reassess conclusions in the light of new information.
c. discover that there is no good an answer for anything in life.
d. reflect on what is presented, ask questions, and search of that single correct answer that is "out there."

9. Neville's physician has told him that there is no association between weather conditions and his arthritis pain. Nonetheless, Neville is convinced that his arthritis will act up whenever the barometric pressure changes. His conviction that a meaningful pattern exists when it doesn't is an example of:
a. mindlessness
b. justification of effort.
c. stereotype threat
d. a mental set.

10. As Alicia awaits the birth of her first grandchild, she says she doesn't care if it is a boy or a girl as long as the baby is healthy. When she holds her new granddaughter for the first time, Alicia reveals that she knew all along that her daughter would have a little girl. Alicia's barrier to rational reasoning in this instance is a case of:
a. hindsight bias
b. confirmation bias
c. a mental set
d. justification of effort

11. Paul thinks of himself as an excellent negotiator after purchasing a brand new car. Two months later, his brother-in-law Noah purchases the same model for $1,000 less than Paul paid! According to cognitive dissonance theory, Paul will probably:
a. decide that he isn't as good as he thought at negotiating the price of a car.
b. ask Noah to come along the next time he purchases a car.
c. tell himself he's glad he's had his new car for these two months, even though prices dropped later.
d. begin to dislike his new car, noticing little defects that bother him.

12. Which one of the following statements about the g factor is TRUE?
a. G factor is a statistical method for evaluating aptitude test scores.
b. There is a great deal of dispute among psychologists about the existence of general intellectual ability shared by all humans.
c. G factor is the broad term for measurement of mental ability.
d. G factor was used by Alfred Binet to determine a child's mental age (MA).

13. The first intelligence test was developed by Alfred Binet as a way to:
a. identify slow learners.
b. isolate children in the top one percent of the intelligence scale.
c. identify children who demonstrate the g factor.
d. measure test anxiety.

14. David Wechsler designed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) to produce separate IQ scores.
a. componential, experimental, and contextual
b. tacit knowledge and emotional intelligence
c. culture-free and general knowledge
_d. general, verbal, and performance

15. Enrique, a psychologist, is concerned about his client Carmen who is scheduled to take an advanced math test. It seems she's convinced that men have better mathematical minds than women. Enrique's concern is that this will hinder Carmen's ability to perform well on the math exam.
a. test anxiety
b. gender dissonance
c. gender bias
d. stereotype threat

16. Bill, a successful salesman, knows exactly what to say to his customers to make them feel at ease. He reads each unique situation and responds appropriately. Clearly, Bill possesses a highly developed intelligence.
a. contextual
b. componential
c. experiential
d. psychometric

17. Logan understands the material in his statistics class, but he spends the entire test period on the most difficult problems and never gets to the ones he knows how to solve. It's evident that Logan needs to improve his:

a. reflective judgment
b. cognitive dissonance
c. componential intelligence
d. justification of effort

18. When Bob, a brilliant physicist, gets anxious about solving a problem, he becomes belligerent with his coworkers. Cognitive psychologists would describe Bob's behavior as being due to low:
a. self-worth.
b. emotional intelligence
c. emotional threshold
d. social tolerance

19. When Wolfgang Kohler put tempting bananas out of the reach of chimpanzees, he found that:
_a. the apes often sat quietly at first, then seemed to have a sudden insight into a solution.
b. the apes performed impressive gymnastic maneuvers to get the bananas, but did not know how to use tools.
c. many of the apes showed humanlike emotions, and some even demonstrated near-human cognitive abilities.
d. almost all of the apes seemed to have sudden insights into a solution, followed by positive action.

20. Cognitive ethologists agree that animals' intelligence is demonstrated in their ability to anticipate future events, make choices and plans, then:
a. respond to reinforcement
b. avoid dangerous situations
c. act on their environment to gain rewards
_d. coordinate activities

© BrainMass Inc. brainmass.com October 24, 2018, 5:52 pm ad1c9bdddf
https://brainmass.com/psychology/cognitive-psychology/multiple-choice-questions-on-thinking-and-intelligence-23613

Attachments

Solution Preview

Definitions have been sourced from www.library.oit.edu/ereserves/data/PSY201ONeal13.pdf

1. As she moves quietly around the restaurant where she works as a waitress, Alicia finds herself humming in her head the phrase, "Just whistle while you work?" This is an example of a/an:
a. Proposition
b. prototype
_c. auditory image
d. cognitive schema

Answer: c. auditory image

2. Chris must sit out the next two weeks of basketball games because of a problem with her hamstring muscle. Her eight grade coach tells her to use this off time imagining herself out on the court. He wants Chris to feel her body running down the court, to see herself reaching for the ball and shooting a basket. It is most likely that Chris's coach is:
a. trying to keep her spirits up during the time she won't be able to play.
b. trying to change her perspective and see the game through his eyes.
c. keeping her involved in the game, so she'll stop brooding over her injury.
d. encouraging her to rehearse in this way, so her performance will improve when she's ready to play again.

Answer: d. encouraging her to rehearse in this way, so her performance will improve when she's ready to play again.

3. When Mitch was learning to drive, he couldn't imagine how he'd ever remember to steer the wheel, flip on the turn signal, step on the gas pedal, and still manage to keep the car on the road. Now that he has been driving for three years, Mitch's reactions have become so automatic that, when he's driving is/are involved.
a. nonconscious processes
b. convergent thinking
_c. subconscious processes
d. divergent thinking

Answer: c. subconscious processes

Subconscious processes are Mental processes occurring outside of conscious awareness but accessible to consciousness when necessary. ex. Driving and eating

4. Dawn and Erin can't figure out how to fit their clothes, furniture, futons, computers, and a refrigerator into their small dorm room. Just when it seems hopeless, Erin says, "Aha, I've got it!" She begins moving the items around until they fit perfectly. Erin's sudden revelation is most likely due to:
_a. clues that triggered nonconscious processing about the room arrangement, followed by conscious awareness of the solution.
b. simplifying the process by imagining a prototype of a dorm room, then making a decision based on that prototype.
c. subconscious processing and automatic routines that Erin has learned so well that she can perform them without thinking.
d. beginning the task in a state of mindlessness, then directing her conscious thinking to the task at hand.

Answer: a. clues that triggered nonconscious processing about the room arrangement, followed by conscious awareness of the solution.

Nonconscious processes are mental processes occurring outside of and not available to conscious awareness. ex. Sudden ...

Solution Summary

Answers Multiple Choice Questions on Thinking and Intelligence.

$2.19
See Also This Related BrainMass Solution

Article Response With Multiple Parts

1) Take a stand in regard to the author's position. First—what is the author's position and do you agree or disagree with his premise? Why or why not? If you agree with the author, what about his argument do you find compelling? Offer supplementary evidence from your own observations or experience that would further support the article. If you disagree with the author, explain why his position is over-stated? Do you feel that the benefits of the internet outweigh the losses? How so?
2. What are the ethical or cultural issues related to the development of artificial intelligence?
3. Write your own argument based on a topic (or related) topic discussed in the article.

Article
Is Google Making us Stoopid?
Nicholas Carr

For me, as for others, the Net is becoming a universal medium, the conduit for most of the information that flows through my eyes and ears and into my mind. The advantages of having immediate access to such an incredibly rich store of information are many, and they've been widely described and duly applauded. "The perfect recall of silicon memory," Wired's Clive Thompson has written, "can be an enormous boon to thinking." But that boon comes at a price. As the media theorist Marshall McLuhan pointed out in the 1960s, media are not just passive channels of information. They supply the stuff of thought, but they also shape the process of thought. And what the Net seems to be doing is chipping away my capacity for concentration and contemplation. My mind now expects to take in information the way the Net distributes it: in a swiftly moving stream of particles. Once I was a scuba diver in the sea of words. Now I zip along the surface like a guy on a Jet Ski.
I'm not the only one. When I mention my troubles with reading to friends and acquaintances—literary types, most of them—many say they're having similar experiences. The more they use the Web, the more they have to fight to stay focused on long pieces of writing. Some of the bloggers I follow have also begun mentioning the phenomenon. Scott Karp, who writes a blog about online media, recently confessed that he has stopped reading books altogether. "I was a lit major in college, and used to be [a] voracious book reader," he wrote. "What happened?" He speculates on the answer: "What if I do all my reading on the web not so much because the way I read has changed, i.e. I'm just seeking convenience, but because the way I THINK has changed?"
Bruce Friedman, who blogs regularly about the use of computers in medicine, also has described how the Internet has altered his mental habits. "I now have almost totally lost the ability to read and absorb a longish article on the web or in print," he wrote earlier this year. A pathologist who has long been on the faculty of the University of Michigan Medical School, Friedman elaborated on his comment in a telephone conversation with me. His thinking, he said, has taken on a "staccato" quality, reflecting the way he quickly scans short passages of text from many sources online. "I can't read War and Peace anymore," he admitted. "I've lost the ability to do that. Even a blog post of more than three or four paragraphs is too much to absorb. I skim it."
Anecdotes alone don't prove much. And we still await the long-term neurological and psychological experiments that will provide a definitive picture of how Internet use affects cognition. But a recently published study of online research habits , conducted by scholars from University College London, suggests that we may well be in the midst of a sea change in the way we read and think. As part of the five-year research program, the scholars examined computer logs documenting the behavior of visitors to two popular research sites, one operated by the British Library and one by a U.K. educational consortium, that provide access to journal articles, e-books, and other sources of written information. They found that people using the sites exhibited "a form of skimming activity," hopping from one source to another and rarely returning to any source they'd already visited. They typically read no more than one or two pages of an article or book before they would "bounce" out to another site. Sometimes they'd save a long article, but there's no evidence that they ever went back and actually read it. The authors of the study report:
It is clear that users are not reading online in the traditional sense; indeed there are signs that new forms of "reading" are emerging as users "power browse" horizontally through titles, contents pages and abstracts going for quick wins. It almost seems that they go online to avoid reading in the traditional sense.
Thanks to the ubiquity of text on the Internet, not to mention the popularity of text-messaging on cell phones, we may well be reading more today than we did in the 1970s or 1980s, when television was our medium of choice. But it's a different kind of reading, and behind it lies a different kind of thinking—perhaps even a new sense of the self. "We are not only what we read," says Maryanne Wolf, a developmental psychologist at Tufts University and the author of Proust and the Squid: The Story and Science of the Reading Brain. "We are how we read." Wolf worries that the style of reading promoted by the Net, a style that puts "efficiency" and "immediacy" above all else, may be weakening our capacity for the kind of deep reading that emerged when an earlier technology, the printing press, made long and complex works of prose commonplace. When we read online, she says, we tend to become "mere decoders of information." Our ability to interpret text, to make the rich mental connections that form when we read deeply and without distraction, remains largely disengaged.
The human brain is almost infinitely malleable. People used to think that our mental meshwork, the dense connections formed among the 100 billion or so neurons inside our skulls, was largely fixed by the time we reached adulthood. But brain researchers have discovered that that's not the case. James Olds, a professor of neuroscience who directs the Krasnow Institute for Advanced Study at George Mason University, says that even the adult mind "is very plastic." Nerve cells routinely break old connections and form new ones. "The brain," according to Olds, "has the ability to reprogram itself on the fly, altering the way it functions..."
...The Internet promises to have particularly far-reaching effects on cognition. In a paper published in 1936, the British mathematician Alan Turing proved that a digital computer, which at the time existed only as a theoretical machine, could be programmed to perform the function of any other information-processing device. And that's what we're seeing today. The Internet, an immeasurably powerful computing system, is subsuming most of our other intellectual technologies. It's becoming our map and our clock, our printing press and our typewriter, our calculator and our telephone, and our radio and TV.
When the Net absorbs a medium, that medium is re-created in the Net's image. It injects the medium's content with hyperlinks, blinking ads, and other digital gewgaws, and it surrounds the content with the content of all the other media it has absorbed. A new e-mail message, for instance, may announce its arrival as we're glancing over the latest headlines at a newspaper's site. The result is to scatter our attention and diffuse our concentration.
The Net's influence doesn't end at the edges of a computer screen, either. As people's minds become attuned to the crazy quilt of Internet media, traditional media have to adapt to the audience's new expectations. Television programs add text crawls and pop-up ads, and magazines and newspapers shorten their articles, introduce capsule summaries, and crowd their pages with easy-to-browse info-snippets. When, in March of this year, TheNew York Times decided to devote the second and third pages of every edition to article abstracts , its design director, Tom Bodkin, explained that the "shortcuts" would give harried readers a quick "taste" of the day's news, sparing them the "less efficient" method of actually turning the pages and reading the articles. Old media have little choice but to play by the new-media rules.
Never has a communications system played so many roles in our lives—or exerted such broad influence over our thoughts—as the Internet does today. Yet, for all that's been written about the Net, there's been little consideration of how, exactly, it's reprogramming us. The Net's intellectual ethic remains obscure.
Google's headquarters, in Mountain View, California—the Googleplex—is the Internet's high church. The company has declared that its mission is "to organize the world's information and make it universally accessible and useful." It seeks to develop "the perfect search engine," which it defines as something that "understands exactly what you mean and gives you back exactly what you want." In Google's view, information is a kind of commodity, a utilitarian resource that can be mined and processed with industrial efficiency. The more pieces of information we can "access" and the faster we can extract their gist, the more productive we become as thinkers.

Where does it end? Sergey Brin and Larry Page, the gifted young men who founded Google while pursuing doctoral degrees in computer science at Stanford, speak frequently of their desire to turn their search engine into an artificial intelligence, a HAL-like machine that might be connected directly to our brains. "The ultimate search engine is something as smart as people—or smarter," Page said in a speech a few years back. "For us, working on search is a way to work on artificial intelligence." In a 2004 interview with Newsweek, Brin said, "Certainly if you had all the world's information directly attached to your brain, or an artificial brain that was smarter than your brain, you'd be better off." Last year, Page told a convention of scientists that Google is "really trying to build artificial intelligence and to do it on a large scale."
Such an ambition is a natural one, even an admirable one, for a pair of math whizzes with vast quantities of cash at their disposal and a small army of computer scientists in their employ. A fundamentally scientific enterprise, Google is motivated by a desire to use technology, in Eric Schmidt's words, "to solve problems that have never been solved before," and artificial intelligence is the hardest problem out there. Why wouldn't Brin and Page want to be the ones to crack it?
Still, their easy assumption that we'd all "be better off" if our brains were supplemented, or even replaced, by an artificial intelligence is unsettling. It suggests a belief that intelligence is the output of a mechanical process, a series of discrete steps that can be isolated, measured, and optimized. In Google's world, the world we enter when we go online, there's little place for the fuzziness of contemplation. Ambiguity is not an opening for insight but a bug to be fixed. The human brain is just an outdated computer that needs a faster processor and a bigger hard drive.
The idea that our minds should operate as high-speed data-processing machines is not only built into the workings of the Internet, it is the network's reigning business model as well. The faster we surf across the Web—the more links we click and pages we view—the more opportunities Google and other companies gain to collect information about us and to feed us advertisements. Most of the proprietors of the commercial Internet have a financial stake in collecting the crumbs of data we leave behind as we flit from link to link—the more crumbs, the better. The last thing these companies want is to encourage leisurely reading or slow, concentrated thought. It's in their economic interest to drive us to distraction.

http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/200807/google

View Full Posting Details