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Cognitive, Gestalt,and Evolutionary Psychology Perspectives

Give a brief Comparison and Contrast of these 3 Psychological perspectives: Cognitive perspective, Gestalt perspective, and Evolutionary perspective!

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Cognitive psychological perspective:
The Congnitive (S-R) theorists believe that learning is a matter of association between the stimulus-response. They conceive learning as a matter of formation and strengthening of associations. Here, the key concept is that all forms of learning take place under conditions of reinforcement. A whole is made up of separate parts, and parts are fundamental in the formation of a whole.Learning proceeds from simple to complex. The learning environment is real, being both physical and psychological in nature. Objects are viewed as they are. Behavior of the learner is very mechanical in nature. The learner is considered to be a machine operating according to schedules of reinforcement. Cognitive theories have been accused of involving irrational shaping of the learner's behavior. They lay emphasis only on overt behavior, as most cognitive theories are oriented towards objective measurement, quantitative data, and reinforcement which are scientific in nature. Lot of emphasis is laid on trial and error, drill and reinforcement. Thus, learner becomes a victim of reinforcement. Cognitive theories emphasizes on the past learning being reinforced. These learning theories are best suited for reaction type learning and habit formation. Transfer of learning is least emphasized and it can take place only through the concept of common elements.

Gestalt psychological perspective:
Gestalt theories are also known as Field theories. Gestalt theorists believe that learning is the organisation of experience into cognitive structures. It is a matter of meaningful, dynamic structure in which relationship is identified. Learning involves restructuring of cognitive ...

Solution Summary

The solution compares and contrasts between Congnitive, Gestalt and Evolutionary psychological perspectives.