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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

I am doing a paper on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (the symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis). As a starter, can you provide me with an article that lists several sources in the bibliography? Thank you.

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I have located an article for you, "The Disorder Named AD/HD" (2001) (presented below and also attached). This article has detailed the order as facts that make is an excellent introduction to the disorder of AD/HD. You may want to make use of the 15 sources listed in the bibliography for your own paper. I also attached another overview article to draw on.

I hope this is helpful.

The Disorder Named AD/HD" (2001)

Occasionally, we may all have difficulty sitting still, paying attention or controlling impulsive behavior. For some people, the problem is so pervasive and persistent that it interferes with their daily life, including home, academic, social, and work settings.

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) is characterized by developmentally inappropriate impulsivity, attention, and in some cases, hyperactivity. AD/HD is a neurobiological disorder that affects three-to-five percent1,2,3 of school-age children. Until recent years, it was believed that children outgrew AD/HD in adolescence. Perhaps, this was because hyperactivity often diminishes during the teen years. However, it is now known that many symptoms continue into adulthood. In fact, current research reflects rates of roughly two to four percent among adults.4

Although individuals with this disorder can be very successful in life, without identification and proper treatment, AD/HD may have serious consequences, including school failure, depression, problems with relationships, conduct disorder, substance abuse, and job failure. Early identification and treatment are extremely important.
Medical science first documented children exhibiting inattentiveness, impulsivity and hyperactivity in 1902. Since that time, the disorder has been given numerous names, including Minimal Brain Dysfunction, Hyperkinetic Reaction of Childhood, and Attention-Deficit Disorder With or Without Hyperactivity. With the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) classification system, the disorder has been renamed Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. The current name reflects the importance of the inattention characteristics of the disorder as well as hyperactivity and impulsivity.

The Symptoms

Typically, AD/HD symptoms arise in early childhood, unless associated with some type of brain injury later in life. Some symptoms persist into adulthood and may pose life-long challenges. Although the official diagnostic criteria state that the onset of symptoms must occur before age seven, leading researchers in the field of AD/HD argue that criterion should be broadened to include onset anytime during childhood.2 Criteria for the three primary subtypes are summarized as follows:
AD/HD predominately inattentive type: (AD/HD-I)5

· Fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes.
· Has difficulty sustaining attention.
· Does not appear to listen.
· Struggles to follow through on instructions.
· Has difficulty with organization.
· Avoids or dislikes tasks requiring sustained mental effort.
· Loses things.
· Is easily distracted.
· Is forgetful in daily activities.

AD/HD predominately hyperactive-impulsive type: (AD/HD-HI)5
· Fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in chair.
· Has difficulty remaining seated.
· Runs about or climbs excessively.
· Difficulty engaging in activities quietly.
· Acts as if driven by a motor.
· Talks excessively.
· Blurts out answers before questions have been completed.
· Difficulty waiting or taking turns.
· Interrupts or intrudes upon others.

AD/HD combined type: (AD/HD-C)5
· Individual meets both sets of inattention and hyperactive/impulsive criteria.

Youngsters with AD/HD often experience a two- to four-year developmental delay that makes them seem less mature and responsible than their peers. In addition, AD/HD frequently co-occurs with other conditions, such as depression, anxiety, or learning disabilities. For example, in 1999, NIMH research indicated that two thirds of children with AD/HD have a least one other coexisting condition.6 When coexisting conditions are present, academic and behavioral problems may be more complex.

Teens with AD/HD present a ...

Solution Summary

This solution provides one article (7 pages, 15 sources) on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (the symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis). Another informative overview article further details the symptoms and treatment components of the disorder.