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Tourette's Syndrome Overview

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1. A description of Tourette's Syndrome and a comparison between normal brain function and the brain function of a person with Tourette's.

2. An evaluation of the relationship between psychological and physiological aspects of Tourette's and the resulting negative effects on daily functioning.

3. An assessment of the impact of recent technological advancements in the diagnosis and treatment of the disorder.

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1. First, as you briefly offer a description of Tourette's Syndrome and a comparison between normal brain function and the brain function of a person with Tourette's, research shows that it is a neurological disorder that is typically accompanied by repetitive, involuntary movements and vocalizations or tics. The typical onset occurs in early childhood or adolescence between the ages of 2 and 15.

One source elaborates further:

This article offers a formal definition:

Reading, R. (2013). Tourette's syndrome. Child: Care, Health & Development, 39(6), 910-911.

Reading defines Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome, or Tourette's syndrome, as "a neurodevelopmental condition characterised by multiple motor and vocal tics, which appear in childhood and are often accompanied by behavioural symptoms" (910). It is also characterized by spontaneous, simple or complex movements and vocalizations that abruptly interrupt normal motor activity.

Accordingly, Tics and TS may resemble other disorders or conditions:
• Myoclonus
• Dystonia
• Hyperkinetic disorders
• Extreme ADHD
• Seizure disorder
• Developmental stuttering

Another source reveals some common symptoms:

Rowh, M. (2012). The Truth About Tourette's. Current Health Teens, 38(8), 17-19.

Tics are a common feature. Rowh argues, "Typical tics include eye blinking, head jerking, shoulder shrugging, grimacing, sniffing, and tongue clicking..." (17). "This develops in early childhood and although not life threatening, it is life tormenting and can be the cause of bullying and prejudice," she says. In addition, TS often is associated with other conditions. It's not uncommon for teens with Tourette's also to have attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, or other disorders (18).

Another source describes phonic tics:

Lilienfeld, Scott O., and Hal Arkowitz. 2009. "What Do We Know about Tourette's?." Scientific American Mind 20, no. 4: 64-65.
Phonic tics "...encompass grunting, coughing, throat clearing, yelling inappropriate words and even barking. Some tics are "complex," meaning they ...

Solution Summary

This solution provides 1000 words of notes and references to summarize facts about Tourette's Syndrome.

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Single-case studies

Problems and Exercises I
(See the attached page)

A behavior therapist seeks to reduce the frequency of hitting behavior exhibited by a 6-year-old child in a classroom for emotionally disturbed children. The child frequently strikes other children and even the teacher. The therapist trains one of the teacher's aides to reward the child with small candy reinforcers when the child has not struck anyone for a period of 5 minutes. The experiment is conducted during two 1-hour sessions each weekday for a period of 4 weeks. An ABAB design is used, each week comprising a different stage. The results of this behavioral intervention are shown on the attachment page. Answer two question below:

1. Does visual inspection of the data obtained in this hypothetical study provide evidence for the effectiveness of the treatment? Why or why not?

2. Provide two suggestions for improving the quality of the evidence for the effectiveness of the treatment in this situation.

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