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Comparing information processing models

What are your thoughts on the content of this discussion below as it relates to information processing. Do you agree or disagree? Why?

This is their discussion:

This person will compare and contrast Atkinson and Shiffrin's information processing modal model of memory with Baddeley and Hitch's working memory model.

Atkinson & Shiffrin's modal model of memory contains three phases - sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory. Memory initially begins as sensory information, and is then passed on to short-term memory, which has a limited capacity, to decide whether it will be "purged" or transitioned into long-term memory, where it will be retained for recall later.

Braddeley & Hitch's working memory also contains both short and long-term memory, but the central executive is integrated into the model. The central executive plays a role in supervising, scheduling, and integrating information from various sources (Whitman, 2011). In this model, items presented in the beginning and at the end were more likely to be stored in long-term memory. The theory was that items presented at the beginning were thought to reflect the transition of items from the short-term store into the long-term memory (Whitman, 2011). These models are similar in that they value the transition from short-term to long-term memory, but differ in how the information is passed between the two. One states it begins with sensory information while the other believes in a more systematic approach through integrating information from various sources.

This person will discuss how and why did Baddeley revise this model?

Baddeley, after research challenged this model, realized that there were important components missing from his model. For instance, his early model did not take into account memory-related phenomena, nor did it address why some with short-term memory problems were able to understand and process more complex information, just to name a few (Whitman, 2011). Baddeley enhanced his Working Memory model with the episodic buffer. The episodic buffer is "a limited-capacity process that binds together, or integrates information for specific, conscious episodes of memory" (Whitman, 2011).

This person will briefly explain the difference between retroactive and proactive interference and illustrate with a personal example to show how either one can contribute to forgetting.

In essence, "interference occurs when information learned at one time competes with information learned at another time" (Whitman, 2011). There are two forms of interference - retroactive and proactive. Retroactive interference occurs when new information competes with old information, whereas proactive interference occurs when old information competes with new information. For example, as I have worked on this assignment, I have had to focus my attention to the new knowledge I have gain through this class, rather than focusing on information pertaining to these topics in previous classes. This is challenging because the perspective is different, therefore the old and new information compete with one another.


Whitman, D. (2011). Cognition. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Solution Preview

The discussion above is one that I agree with. Baddeley's original model was short sided in that it only focused on the short-term processing of information and only ...

Solution Summary

The solution assists with comparing information processing models.