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terminal behavior and shaping, extinction

Clarify terms: terminal behavior and shaping, extinction. In about 200 hundred words each.

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1. Terminal Behavior and Shaping

The process of shaping is used when the response is not currently in the person's repertoire and used as an intervention. It is important to remember that we shape responses, not people. The baseline behavior is the operant level or the frequency of responding before reinforcement. On the other hand, the terminal behavior is the behavior NOT in the repertoire or not occurring at the desired rate. The terminal behavior is the desired behavior i.e. child to sit in her seat for 20 minutes. It is the goal of the intervention. (1)

Shaping is used when an existing behavior needs to be changed into a more appropriate or new behavior or skill. Shaping involves the use of reinforcement of successive approximations of a desired behavior, which is the terminal behavior of the process. In the shaping process using differential reinforcement of successive approximations, each approximate desired behavior that occurs is reinforced (see example below) (2) When shaping behavior, we look for initial behaviors and intermediate behaviors. The initial behavior is behavior that resembles the terminal behavior along some meaningful dimension (i.e. sitting in the seat for 2 minutes) and occurs with at least a minimal frequency; whereas the intermediate behaviors are behavior that more closely approximates the terminal behavior (i.e. sitting in her seat for 15 minutes) (1)

EXAMPLE: Shaping and terminal behavior (excerpt)

Ms. Brown, ...

Solution Summary

Clarifies the following terms: terminal behavior and shaping, extinction. References are provided.