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Approaches to Learning


Describe your selected learning situation.
Compare and contrast the concepts of positive and negative reinforcement as they relate to your selected situation.
Explain the role of reward and punishment in your selected learning situation.
Explain which form of instrumental conditioning would be most effective in your selected situation.

Include at least three references from scholarly sources.

Solution Preview

Conditioning involves learning association between an individual and events that occur in his or her environment. Two important theories of learning by conditioning are Classical and Operant conditioning. Classical conditioning involves the pairing of some neutral (conditioned) stimulus (e.g. tone, sound) with an unconditioned stimulus (e.g. light) to naturally evoke a learning response (Bradizza, C.M., Stasiewkz, 2009). Operant conditioning is a process of changing behaviors by rewarding or punishing subjects in which an application is performed until the subject associates the action with pleasure or distress. In their study, Capaldi & Martins (2010) used a mode of operant conditioning to show how individuals used memory reinforcement to learn specific rules. Operant condition is often referred to as instrumental learning.

Describe your selected learning situation

An example of operant conditioning in a selected learning situation would be that of behavior modification for drug use. For instance, a form of operant conditioning, in which a person who drives (although somewhat ineffectively) under the influence of alcohol can drive home, because he or she is familiar with the environment. However, as Bradizza & Staiewkz (2009) point out, alcohol abuse is very serious problem that have societal (e.g., drunk driving accidents and deaths, and individual psychological consequences (e.g., addiction, ...

Solution Summary

The solution discusses operant and classical conditioning associated with learning