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The Effects of Globalization

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This gives a detailed description of the impact of globalization.

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Because more people and goods are free to move across borders, it is creating new challenges to global health. This is because the health of populations are either directly or indirectly impacted by globalization. Populations are directly affected through the healthcare delivery system. Globalization has provided opportunities for healthcare organizations to rapidly develop their products, and to expand their network of customers. However, from a health leader's perspective, there are still a number of health concerns. For example, there are changes in where and how many health products are produced, which is not always in the best interest of US hospitals and their patients. Most of the US nutritional supplements, exam gloves, and other products are manufactured overseas. This poses a risk for Americans because if there was a global pandemic, the country manufacturing the products would get the goods (Daly, 2011; Pang & Guindon, 2004).

Additionally, there is an increase in international competition for qualified medical personnel, which could raise labor costs in the United States. For example, if foreign medical students and health professionals, currently in America, choose to work overseas, this could cause a shortage of workers in some medical specialties in the United States. As a result, wages for those workers will rise. Also, greater opportunities in their native countries or other countries could reduce the number of foreign health professionals practicing in the United States.This would mean that underserved rural communities would be hit the hardest, since many foreign health professionals work in those areas (Herrick, 2007).

Human mobility has caused an increase in antimicrobial drug-resistant organisms and drug-resistant infectious diseases in US hospitals. Interregional migration and international population mobility has affected the spread and distribution of resistant organisms, especially in locations with disparate delivery of health services, public health systems, and regulatory frameworks for antimicrobial agents. This has adversely affected patient care and threatened effective management of public health infectious diseases in the US (Frenk, 2010; MacPherson et al., 2009). The declining of antimicrobial drug effectiveness not only has current but also future consequences, which affect all elements of the health sector. This includes research and development, public health policy, and service delivery ( Macpherson et al., 2009).

Globalization has allowed for the rapid spread of contraceptive and public health technology, which has increased life expectancy and lowered fertility. However, at the same time, migration and international travel have contributed to the rise in global AIDS/HIV along with other re-emerging infectious diseases (Croix et.al, 2003). Although US technological breakthroughs have helped to facilitate the detection, diagnosis, and control of these infectious diseases, this has also introduced new dangers in the US healthcare system. For example, invasive medical procedures have resulted in many hospital-acquired infections, such as Staphylococcus aureus. This has led to significant mortality and financial losses for US health systems (Gannon, 2000).

The nature of infectious diseases makes international interaction a source of risk but, at the same time, creates a need for cooperation among countries. Although coordinated combined action is beneficial, the costs of global scale policymaking is very high. This is because health issues connect to societal interests and behavioral practices in complex and potentially politically charged ways (Aran, 2009; Croix et al., 2003).

Because of the emergence of infectious diseases, stakeholders, such as governments and multilateral institutions, are aiming to build interconnected systems for outbreak detection, preparedness, prevention, and response. This includes activities such as disease surveillance, infectious disease research and training, public health campaigns, drug and vaccine research, and public education (Global Health Policy, 2016). Coordinated efforts are also being made to detect, control, and prevent antibiotic resistance (Lee, 2004).

Populations are also indirectly impacted by globalization through the economy and other factors, including water supply, education, and sanitation. People are more educated and, as a result, is able to afford more and can improve their quality of life. Furthermore, economic growth has allowed countries to spend more money on infrastructure, such as transportation networks, communication, electricity, etc. It has also allowed people to improve their living standards. More populations are able to afford food, shelter, and clothing that can enable them to live much longer. Moreover, households that experience economic growth spend less on health care, have better quality care, and can easily access health services (Croix et al., 2003; Weil, 2013).

Although globalization has improved standards of living with associated health benefits, in some communities, it has brought negative health consequences. For example, economic growth has increased dangerous levels of air pollution, waterborne diseases, and exposure to harmful chemicals. This is mainly seen in developing countries, since they have a high level of dependence on natural resources, a limited capacity for adaptation to changes in climate, and limited resources to remedy these effects (The World Bank, ...

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The Solution provides 2000 words and 30 references in a discussion of the impact of globalization.

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