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Hydraulic Cylinders

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Explain how power is created using hydraulics and how a little cylinder on the tractor can raise or lower extreme amounts of implement weight. Explain the system including parts and functions.

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The basic concept of hydraulics is using the force of a liquid to take up a volume and to push on a movable cylinder. Hydraulics use the physics described by "Pascal's Law" which states that pressure applied at any point upon a confined liquid is transmitted undiminished in all directions. Thus the cylinder will supply the least amount of opposing force the the pressurized liquid and thus is moved by the pressurized liquid (usually oil). This movable cylinder is usually connected to the part of the machine that you want to move. The benefit of hydraulics is that you are able to supply large amounts of force through movable pipes and hoses using an incompressible liquid.

By definition, power is equal to the rate at which energy is transferred in units of Joule/second. In the case of hydraulics, power is most easily understood by looking at the equation:

P = F*v where P is power, F is force and v is velocity

Force is found by multiplying the pressure that is placed on the cylinder by the ...

Solution Summary

The expert explains how power is created using hydraulics. The systems including parts and functions are determined.

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Designing a hydraulic system

See attached figure.

Hydraulic Piston.

The basic design of any hydraulic system is two connected fluid-filled cylinders of different cross-sectional area. Each cylinder is fitted with a close-fitting piston. Ideally, the fluid is incompressible and the container does not expand, so that when one piston is compressed, it expels a volume of fluid from its cylinder and exactly the same volume of fluid flows into the other cylinder, lifting its piston.

Hydraulic system with cylinder 2 larger than cylinder 1

Your task is to design a hydraulic system. It must be able to lift a load of 3.0 metric tons using an input force of no more than 100 N. The pressure of the hydraulic fluid in the system must not exceed 10.0 bar during this lift. What should be the minimum diameters of the input and output pistons?

1 metric ton = 1000 kg; 1 bar = 100,000 Pa.

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