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Hypotheses, theories, and laws

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Define Hypotheses, theories, and laws, and the relationship among them.

Explain entrenchment, explanatory cooperation, and generality. Why are they important "internal virtues" and how do they work together to support a theory?

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Please see response attached. I hope this helps and take care.

1. Define Hypotheses, theories, and laws, and the relationship among them.
There are many different definitions for each of these concepts, which have changed over time. So, let's look at some of them, and then look at the relationship between these concepts through discussion and example. I highlighted some points in brackets and pink to make then stand out.
1. Definitions of Hypotheses
• A hypothesis (= assumption in ancient Greek) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon.
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypotheses
• Plural of hypothesis. A hypothesis a prediction that can be tested and is based on an observation, experience, or a scientific reason The statement includes the expected cause and effect in a given circumstance or situation.
www.mdk12.org/instruction/curriculum/science/glossary.shtml
• Proposed explanations for natural phenomena.
highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072549238/student_view0/glossary.html
• "Educated guesses to explain natural phenomena. In the scientific method, hypotheses must be testable."
highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072863129/student_view0/chapter1/key_terms.html
• Predictive accuracy
Related phrases: testing hypotheses derivation of hypotheses fingimus hypotheses testing of hypotheses early hypotheses types of hypotheses

2. Definitions of Theories:
Peter Kosso's preliminary list of what he calls a theory's internal virtues: entrenchment, explanatory co-cooperation, testability, generality, and simplicity (Kosso 1992: 36-47).
So, how can we define theories?
• The word theory has a number distinct meanings depending on the context.
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theories
• Theory: supposition to account for something, system of rules and principles.
www.embassy.org.nz/encycl/t3encyc.htm
• Models based on currently accepted hypotheses that offer broadly conceived, logically coherent, and very well supported concepts.
www.environment.nelson.com/0176169040/glossary.html
• What people think without proof (perhaps the most applicable one)
www.jessieyounghusband.w-sussex.sch.uk/curriculum/y6/EarthandBeyond/glossary.htm
• Grand theory, mid-range theory
classes.kumc.edu/son/nrsg754/DBoyle/unit2/resterm2.html
• Generalizations about causal relationships between facts, or variables. (Or this one?)
wps.aw.com/aw_rohlf_econreason_5/0,5759,11635-,00.html

3. Definitions of laws:
• Torah: the first of three divisions of the Hebrew Scriptures comprising the first five books of the Hebrew Bible considered as a unit
wordnet.princeton.edu/perl/webwn
• The Laws is Plato's last and longest dialogue. The question asked at the beginning is not "What is law?" as one would expect- that is the question of the Minos. The kick-off question is rather, "Who is given the credit for laying down your laws?"
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laws_(Plato)
• The LAWs Project was set up to define ...

Solution Summary

Defines the concepts: hypotheses, theories, and laws, and the relationship among them. It also explains entrenchment, explanatory cooperation, and generality, as well as why they are important "internal virtues" and how they work together to support a theory.

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