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    Critical Thinking of Philosophy and Reasoning

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    1. How does philosophy affect ethical issues?
    2. What significance does thinking and reasoning critically play in society, and in human development?

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    1. There is not much of a distinction among ethics, politics, history and philosophy. These are all tightly integrated. When one makes an ethical judgment, it implies the existence of a whole chain of reasoning that ends up with the nature of the Good as such. Say you utter, "Health care is a right; it should be available to all regardless of social status." You are making an ethical judgment. Yet, what does it imply?

    First, that health is an important human good. Without it, we really cannot function, or at least not to our capacity. Thus, functioning to our greatest capacity is also implied as an important good. This, in turn, suggests that our health is needed for our own satisfaction, but for that of society as a whole.

    Second, it implies that our happiness, functioning and optimal productivity (in the broad sense) is also impacted by health. The point here is that the statement above uses the term "right." this term is different in English than in all other European languages. In German and Russian, it refers to truth, justice and law. In the Anglo-American world, it is a claim that I, as a person, must receive whatever I have a right to on demand, and therefore, someone else must provide it for me. This is usually the state or a related institution.

    "Rights" are slippery. From whence do they derive? One can argue that they derive from our merely being human. That ...

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    The solution discusses critical thinking of philosophy and reasoning.