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Critical Thinking of Philosophy and Reasoning

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1. How does philosophy affect ethical issues?
2. What significance does thinking and reasoning critically play in society, and in human development?

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1. There is not much of a distinction among ethics, politics, history and philosophy. These are all tightly integrated. When one makes an ethical judgment, it implies the existence of a whole chain of reasoning that ends up with the nature of the Good as such. Say you utter, "Health care is a right; it should be available to all regardless of social status." You are making an ethical judgment. Yet, what does it imply?

First, that health is an important human good. Without it, we really cannot function, or at least not to our capacity. Thus, functioning to our greatest capacity is also implied as an important good. This, in turn, suggests that our health is needed for our own satisfaction, but for that of society as a whole.

Second, it implies that our happiness, functioning and optimal productivity (in the broad sense) is also impacted by health. The point here is that the statement above uses the term "right." this term is different in English than in all other European languages. In German and Russian, it refers to truth, justice and law. In the Anglo-American world, it is a claim that I, as a person, must receive whatever I have a right to on demand, and therefore, someone else must provide it for me. This is usually the state or a related institution.

"Rights" are slippery. From whence do they derive? One can argue that they derive from our merely being human. That ...

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The solution discusses critical thinking of philosophy and reasoning.

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What does ethics mean to you?

Consider the following questions when writing your paper. The responses to these questions should find mention, not necessarily in this order, but somewhere in your reflection paper.

? What does ethics mean to you?
? What are some of the tools of critical thinking for ethics? Have you ever used these? How?
? Describe some different beliefs about ethical living. Which ones do you tend to agree with more? Is it hard to live ethically?
? What role do reason, emotion, and intuition play when making ethical decisions? Have you experienced these, and have you ever felt a conflict between the three? Why or why not?

Keep these points in mind when writing your reflection paper:
1. Your paper should bring out a summary of the key concepts and ideas from the lessons covered in Weeks 1 to 3 that relate to the questions above. Ensure that this is very concise and to the point. Specifically include ideas and concepts that are new for you and have significantly enhanced your previous understanding of ethics.
2. Choose an ethical dilemma from your personal experience or a contemporary societal problem. When writing your paper, refer to this issue and describe what you think could be the cause of this problem. If you were to think of a solution to this ethical dilemma, what would it be?
3. Use your responses to show your own personal belief system. Begin to think about your personal belief system now, so that you can start to build on it for your personal code of ethics,

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