What are some of the major differences between Empiricism and Rationalism? How would those schools of thought influence approaching science generally, or approaching the biological study of the mind more specifically?
Both have a surprising amount to say about both topics, and can especially influence our personal approaches. Be prepared and self-aware about the schools, their scientific applications, and your practice of them!© BrainMass Inc. brainmass.com June 4, 2020, 5:27 am ad1c9bdddf
Basically, it seems your question has to do with psychology; but even more than that, the question is asking you to evaluate the presuppositions behind psychology. Psychology is in some ways a science, of course, in that it looks to explain something material. But it's also trying to explain an area that has been debated as immaterial, too! That's why you have people being "proponents" or "critics" of a strictly materialist method.
The scientific method is based on, of course, science and the material world. In order to use it to ascertain knowledge, you have to believe that the knowledge can be gained by experiencing the material; that's called "Empiricism." Empiricism is the belief that everything you know is by experience of the material world. The formal term for this is a posteriori, or "after the fact." Without first experiencing something, you could never know it; where else would it exist but outside ...
The scientific methods for the mind are determined. Empiricism versus Rationalism are determined.