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Scientific Discoveries: Their Unexpected Side and the Opportunities They Bring

One of the greatest scientific developments of the past 150 years is the discovery of antibiotics. For some basic background on antibiotics, listen to this very brief Centers for Disease Control (CDC) podcast about antibiotics:

http://www2c.cdc.gov/podcasts/player.asp?f=10055

There is, however, a dirty little secret about Alexander Fleming and his discovery: it was an accident! As Fleming worked in his lab in the late 1920s growing disease-causing bacteria in tiny petri dishes, he got a little sloppy by leaving the petri dishes uncovered too long. One story even suggests that he may have sneezed into one of his petri dishes. Regardless of the exact cause, what resulted was a mold infestation on some of his bacterial dishes. However messy Fleming was, he was also smart enough to see that the mold infestation was killing off the bacteria he was studying. Completely by accident, he had found something that killed disease-causing organisms.

Such "happy accidents" are not uncommon in science. Some notable examples include aspartame (NutraSweet) which was discovered by a drug chemist who forgot to wash his hands. Even Isaac Newton benefited from a little accidental inspiration when he (supposedly) came up with a description of the concept of gravity after being knocked on the head by a falling apple. Scientists, like everyone else, make mistakes but, the best scientists use their mistakes and learn from them.

Reflect about the famous Louis Pasteur quote: "Chance favors the prepared mind," as well as what you learned about scientific inquiry throughout the course.
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Questions:
What examples of learning by "happy accident" have you experienced in your own life?
What do you think it means for a person (especially a scientist) to have a "prepared mind," as Pasteur describes?
How can a person prepare his or her mind to be open to chance within any particular discipline? What roles might education, job experience, and life experience play in creating a prepared mind?
What about science makes it particularly good at allowing people to analyze their accidents?
What are some risks associated with research that involves chance? [Hint: Use your reading this week and consider the risks associated with stem cell research, cloning, gene therapy, HIV.] Are there circumstances when research should not be conducted due to risks or are there ways to reduce risk?

Solution Preview

What examples of learning by "happy accident" have you experienced in your own life?

A happy accident in my life was the realization that a regional store in my city sold the same products that I bought at the 99 cents only store. With this knowledge, I was able to buy the products at the 99 cents only store and sell them for a much higher price at the larger regional store quintessentially paying for my living expenses throughout college.

What do you think it means for a person (especially a scientist) to have a "prepared mind," as Pasteur describes?

For a person to have a prepared mind, the person must intentionally prepare to sense, make sense, decide and act across a complex set of conditions. This is what Pasteur means when he describes a prepared mind.

How can a ...

Solution Summary

The unexpected side and the opportunities they bring is determined. The expert examines scientific discoveries.

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