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Principles and a Treatment Strategy for Drug Abusers.

Create a list of 3-4 guiding principles to be used during the development of a treatment strategy for drug abusers. Outline a treatment strategy, keeping in mind the guiding principles created. Develop a comprehensive portfolio of information about drug abusers in the juvenile justice system. 2000-2500 words also containing information about the following elements (a) profile and risk factors (b) corrections and detention (c) Juvenile courts (d) prevention programs (e) guiding principles and (f) treatment strategy.

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One approach to help you with this interesting paper assignment is to look at information from various sources for you draw on for each section. It should be fairly easy to take it to the next step of writing your final copy. I also provided links for further research if necessary, and a supporting article.

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1. Create a list of 3-4 guiding principles to be used during the development of a treatment strategy for drug abusers. Outline a treatment strategy, keeping in mind the guiding principles created.

Juvenile justice is the area of criminal law applicable to persons not old enough to be held responsible for criminal acts. In most states, the age for criminal culpability is set at 18 years. Juvenile law is mainly governed by state law and most states have enacted a juvenile code. The main goal of the juvenile justice system is rehabilitation rather than punishment.

Some proposed principles to consider for this fist section of your paper are those proposed by the National Institute for Drug Abuse:

EXAMPLE: General drug abuse principles

1. No single treatment is appropriate for all individuals.

Matching treatment settings, interventions, and services to each individual's particular problems
and needs is critical to his or her ultimate success in returning to productive functioning in the family, workplace, and society.

2.Treatment needs to be readily available.

Because individuals who are addicted to drugs may be uncertain about entering treatment, taking advantage of opportunities when they are ready for treatment is crucial. Potential treatment applicants can be lost if treatment is not immediately available or is not readily accessible.

3.Effective treatment attends to multiple needs of the individual, not just his or her drug use.

To be effective, treatment must address the individual's drug use and any associated medical, psycho-
logical, social, vocational, and legal problems.

4.An individual's treatment and services plan must be assessed continually and modified as necessary to ensure that the plan meets the person's changing needs.

A patient may require varying combinations of services and treatment components during the course of treatment and recovery. In addition to counseling or psychotherapy, a patient at times may require medication, other medical services, family therapy, parenting instruction, vocational rehabilitation, and social and legal services. It is critical that the treatment approach be appropriate to the individual's age, ge n d e r, e t h n i c i t y, and culture.

5. Remaining in treatment for an adequate period of time is critical for treatment effectiveness.

The appropriate duration for an individual depends on his or her problems and needs (see pages 13-51). Research indicates that for most patients, the threshold of significant improvement is reached at about 3 months in treatment. After this threshold is reached , additional treatment can produce further progress toward recovery. Because people often leave treatment prematurely, programs should include strategies to engage and keep patients in treatment.

6.Counseling (individual and/or group) and other behavioral therapies are critical components of effective treatment for addiction .

In therapy, patients address issues of motivation, build skills to resist drug use, replace drug-using activities with constructive and rewarding nondrug-using activities, and improve problem-solving abilities. Behavioral therapy also facilitates interpersonal relationships and the individualability to function in the family and community. (Pages 37-51 discuss details of different treatment components to accomplish these goals.)

7. Medications are an important element of treatment for many patients, especially when combined with counseling and other behavioral therapies.

Methadone and levo-alphaacetylmethadol (LAAM) are very effective in helping individual s addicted to heroin or other opiates stabilize their lives and reduce their illicit drug use. Naltrexone is also an effective medication for some opiate addicts and some patients with co-occurring alcohol dependence. For persons addicted to nicotine, a nicotine replacement product (such as patches or gum) or an oral medication (such as bupropion) can be an effective component of treatment. For patients with mental disorders, both behavioral treatments and medications can be critically important.

8. Addicted or drug-abusing individuals with coexisting mental disorders should have both disorders treated in an integrated way.

Because addictive disorders and mental d i s o rd e rs often occur in the same individual , patients presenting for either condition should be assessed and treated for the co-occurrence of the other type of disorder.

9.Medical detoxification is only the first stage of addiction treatment and by itself does little to change long-term drug use.

Medical detoxification safely manages the acute physical symptoms of withdrawal associated with stopping drug use.While detoxification alone is rarely sufficient to help addicts achieve long-term abstinence, for some individuals it is a strongly indicated precursor to effective drug addiction treatment (see pages 25-35).

10. Treatment does not need to be voluntary to be effective.

Strong motivation can facilitate the treatment process. Sanctions or enticements in the family, employment setting, or criminal justice system can increase significantly both treatment entry and retention rates and the success of drug treatment interventions.

11. Possible drug use during treatment must be monitored continuously.

Lapses to drug use can occur during treatment. The objective monitoring of a patient's drug and alcohol use during treatment, such as through urinalysis or other tests, can help the patient withstand urges to use drugs. Such monitoring also can provide early evidence of drug use so that the individual's treatment plan can be adjusted. Feedback to patients who test positive for illicit drug use is an important element of monitoring.

12.Treatment programs should provide assessment for HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B and C, tuberculosis and other infectious diseases, and counseling to help patients modify or change behaviors that place themselves or others at risk of infection.

C o u n s e l i n g can help patients avoid high-risk behavior. Counseling also can help people who are already infected manage their illness.

13. Recovery from drug addiction can be a long-term process and frequently requires multiple episodes of treatment

As with other chronic illnesses, relapses to drug use can occur during or after successful treatment episodes. Addicted individuals may require prolonged treatment and multiple episodes of t re at m e n t to achieve long-term abstinence and fully restored functioning. Participation in self-help support programs during and following treatment often is helpful in maintaining abstinence.

EXAMPLE 2: In 2006 NIDA released Principles of Drug Abuse Treatment for Criminal Justice Populations.

Principles of Drug Abuse Treatment for Criminal Justice Populations (NIDA, 2006)

1. Drug addiction is a brain disease that affects behavior.

Drug addiction has well-recognized cognitive, behavioral, and physiological characteristics that contribute to continued use of drugs, despite the harmful consequences. Scientists have also found that chronic drug abuse alters the brain's anatomy and chemistry and that these changes can last for months or years after the individual has stopped using drugs. This transformation may help explain why addicts are at a high risk of relapse to drug abuse even after long periods of abstinence, and why they persist in seeking drugs despite deleterious consequences.

2. Recovery from drug addiction requires effective treatment, followed by management of the problem over time.

Drug addiction is a serious problem ...

Solution Summary

Creation of a ist of 3-4 guiding principles that can be used during the development of a treatment strategy for drug abusers, which informs a treatment strategy. It also discusses the following elements (a) profile and risk factors (b) corrections and detention (c) Juvenile courts (d) prevention programs (e) guiding principles and (f) treatment strategy for a portfolio. Supplemented with an article that profiles women and girls in the criianl justice system (CJS).