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Warrant Cause and Effect

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1. Define warrant in your own words, and explain why the warrant is important in an argument.

2. Select either "Finding Your Future," "Stop Me Before I Shop Again," or "Runner's Story" and explain whether it uses inductive reasoning, deductive reasoning, or both. Make sure you illustrate your claims with evidence (examples) from the essay.

For questions 3 and 4 use one of the following attached essays:

Where Have All the Heroes Gone? http://www.ithaca.edu/icq/1998v1/heroes.htm
Runner's Story
I, Too, Am a Good Parent

3. Select a different essay that uses a cause and effect argument, and walk through the logic involved in its cause and effect argument. You may phrase this in terms of its major premise and minor premises, if you like, or you may identify its claim, support, and so on. Feel free to answer this question in list or outline form:
Major premise:
Minor premise, etc.

4. Select another essay, one you have not discussed in the above questions yet. What warrant(s) does the author use in it, and how are these warrants communicated? Are they directly stated? Implied in the choice of sources? Make sure you give specific evidence to support your claims.

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If you take this assignment step by step, it would not seem so long and boring. I would take it from step one on defining terms. Since I don't have your text, I can only define the terms from using Dictionary.com (for you). However, I believe you were supposed to understand the terms from your own perspective. You can however use a reliable source to help you out.

From Dictionary.com (you can also use the Oxford Dictionary Online....by going to the JSTOR site of your university liberary's homepage), it defines warrant as: authorization, sanction, justification. Having defined this term for you, you should be able to link that to an argument. If you take a few moments and brainstorm on these two terms, that would help.

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Cause and Effect

Example: In our daily lives, we often conduct little experiments to detect cause-and-effect connections. If you are interested in gardening, for example, you might try adding plant food to one bed of flowers but not another and then ask the question: Does the use of plant food (the independent variable) affect the size of the flowers (the dependent variable)? By comparing unfed plants (the control group) to those receiving plant food (the experimental group), you could then find out if plant food is worth using.
Think of at least two different informal experiments you've conducted in the last few months, or consider a couple of experiments you would like to conduct. Answer the following questions:
(1) What is the hypothesis?
(2) What were the independent and dependent variables?
(3) Were any important extraneous variables controlledâ?"if so, how? If not, how would you control for the extraneous variables?
(4) What was the outcome of the experiment?
(5) Are the conclusions warrantedâ?"why, or why not?

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